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Flashcards in Vascular biology Deck (59):
1

What are the three layers of blood vessels?

Tunica intima
Tunica media
Tunica adventitia (externa)

2

What are the components of the tunica intima?

1. Endothelium
2. basal lamina
3. Loose CT
4. internal elastic lamina

3

What is the main component of the internal elastic lamina?

elastin

4

What type of endothelium comprises the tunica intima?

Simple squamous

5

What is the purpose for the fenestrations of the tunica intima?

Allows gas exchange

6

What are the 5 components of the tunica media?

1.concentric layer of 2.smooth muscle cells
elastin/elastic fibers
3.reticular fibers
4. proteoglycans
5. external elastic lamina, made of elastin

7

What are the components of the tunica adventitia?

CT layer
Type I collagen
elastic fibers
fibroblasts

8

What is the vasa vesorum? Where is it needed

"vessels of the vessels".

Needed for vessels greater than 1 mm in diameter

9

Which have move vasa vesorum, veins or arteries?

Veins

10

What is endarerities/periarteritis?When is it seen?

Infection/inflammation of the vasa vesorum

Classic example is in syphilis

11

What is the network of nerves that supply blood vessels called?

nervi vasorum or vascularis

12

Where are nerves endings found in arteries?

in the adventitia, usually not penetrating the media

13

Where are nerves endings found in veins?

in adventitia and in the media

14

Are nerve endings more dense in arteries or in veins?

More dense in arteries

15

What type of neurons are found in the nervi vascularis?

Mainlu sympathetic

16

What do nervi vasorum nerves releasing (what is the neurotransmitter)?

Norepi

17

How do cells that connect to the nervi vasorum communicate the nervous signal to neighboring cells?

Through gap junctions

18

How are the endothelial cells of vessels oriented?

Long axis in the direction of blood flow

19

What is the shape of endothelial vessel cells?

flat and elongated

20

What is the specialization that can be found on the endothelial cells?

Microvilli

21

What are the junctions that exists between endothelial cells?

Junctional complexes
Myoendothelial junctions

22

What is the main transport process seen in the endothlial cells of the vascular system?

Pinocytosis

23

What is the result of shearing stress on endothelial cells?

Hyperpolarization of the cell, leading to hyperpolarization of smooth muscle above (through myoendothelial junction), and subsequent muscle relaxation

24

What are Weibel – Palade bodies?

Granules present in endothelial cells that contain:
1. Factor VIII
2. tissue plasminogen activator
3. interleuking 8
4. P-selectin
5. others

25

What is the function of the P-selectin molecules found in the Weibel – Palade bodies?

Help leukocytes attach and migrate through endothelial cells

26

What are the five main functions of endothelial cells?

1. Promote/inhibit coagulation
2. modulate smooth muscle activity
3. Regulate inflammatory cell traffic
4. Transport
5. Regulate angiogenesis

27

What is the function of prostacyclin in endothelia cells? Nitric oxide?

Vasodilators

(Prostacyclin also has anticoagulation effects)

28

What is the function of endothelin in endothelia cells?

Vasoconstriction

29

What are the major components of vessels that are increased in large arteries like the aorta? What doesn't change?

Most smooth muscle, elastic fibers are increased


Endotheliim and basal lamina do not change

30

What components changes in the small arteries as compared to the large ones?

Less smooth muscle, elastic fibers, more CT

31

What are the components of the capillaries?

Only have the basal lamina and endothelium

32

What is the major component of veins?

CT

33

How much does the muscular component vary from large arteries to small? Veins?

Large change in arteries

Small change in veins

34

Looking at a slide of a vessel, you see a prominent elastic lamina. What type of vessel are you looking at (vein or artery)?

Artery

35

How does the tunica media in veins compare to that found in arteries?

Much smaller in veins

36

How does the tunica adventitia in veins compare to that found in arteries?

Much larger in veins

37

What happens to the elastic lamellae as we age?

Increases, but also there is fibrosis

38

What is the characteristic feature of the tunica media found in arteries?

large amount of alternating elastic lamella and smooth muscle

39

True or false: there are fibroblasts in the tunica adventitia and in the elastic lamellae?

False--only in the tunica adventitia

40

The first squiggly dark line in the elastic lamella in arteries is what?

The basal lamina

41

What connects the multiple elastic lamelle?

Elastic fibers

42

What components of the elastic lamelle is dysfunctional in Marfan's syndrome?

The GAGs of the elastic fibers that connect elastic lamellae

43

What happens to the tunica intima of arteries as we age?

Increases d/t fibrotic changes

44

"lakes" of GAGs in the elastic lamellae of arteries is characteristic of what disease?

Marfan's

45

What changes occur in muscular arteries as compared to normal?

Increased smooth muscle in tunica media, at expense of elastic lamellae (change to two)

46

What is the main resistance structure in the blood system?

arterioles

47

How many smooth muscle layers are present in arterioles?

1-2

48

What is the way described in lecture to determine an arteriole from a artery?

Wall-to-lumen ratio is 1

49

True or false: arterioles have a small tunica adventitia surrounding them

True

50

How does the lumen of a veinuole compare to that of a arteriole?

Veinuloe is much larger

51

What is the microcirculation?

The area between the arterioles and the veinuoles

52

What is a metarteriole?

A small branch of the arteriole that controls the circulation into the microcirculation via smooth muscle

53

What are pericytes?

Mesenchymal cells that surround capillaries and can differentiate into smooth muscle cells.

They are contractile

54

True or false: capillaries have a tunica adventitia?

False

55

What are the layers that capillaries have?

Endothelium
Basal lamina

56

What are the three types of capillaries?

Continuous
Fenestrated
Sinusoidal

57

Where are continuous capillaries found?

CNS, muscle, lungs

58

Where are fenestrated capillaries found?

kidney, intestines, endocrine glands

59

Where are sinusoidal capillaries found?

spleen, liver, bone marrow