Urinary System Flashcards Preview

Cell and tissue > Urinary System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Urinary System Deck (64):
1

What is the renal sinus?

a fat filled cavity of the kidney that encloses the renal artery, vein, and lymph vessels

2

What type of CT surrounds a kidney?

Dense irr CT

3

What is the cortical labyrinth?

the regions between the medullary rays

4

What is the cortical arch?

The cortical tissue overlying the base of a pyramid

5

What are the medullary rays in kidneys?

Medullary tissue extending from the base of the pyramid into the cortex

6

What is contained within medullary rays?

Straight tubules and collecting ducts

7

How many renal pyramids are there per kidney?

8-18

8

What does the apex of a renal pyramid contain?

ducts of bellini, projecting into the minor calyx

9

What are the renal columns of Bertin? What part of the kidney are they considered?

The columns of renal tissue that extends between renal pyramids. These are considered a part of the medulla, NOT cortex.

10

What is the cortical arch?

The cortex above the renal pyramids

11

What are the three components of each kidney lobe?

Renal pyramid with base cortical tissue and columns of bertin

12

What is contained within the renal columns of Bertin?

Straight and collecting tubules

13

What comprises a uriniferous tubule?

Nephron + Collecting Tubule

14

What is a a renal corpuscle?

Glomerulus and the bowman's capsule

15

What is the glomerulus?

A clusted of fenestrated capillaries located in the renal corpuscle

16

What is Bowman's capsule?

The proximal end of the nephron

17

What are the two regions of the renal cortex?

Cortical labyrinth and medullary rays

18

What is contained within the cortical labyrinth of the cortex? (3)

Renal corpuscles
Convoluted tubules
Collecting tubules

19

What is contained within the medullary rays?

Straight tubules and collecting ducts

20

What does a kidney lobe consist of?

Renal pyramid
Cortical arch
Columns of Bertin

21

What does a kidney lobule contain?

Collecting duct and all nephrons emptying into it

22

Where does a nephron end?

At the distal convoluted tubule

23

What is the visceral layer of Bowman's capsule composed of?

podocytes

24

What is significant about the podocytes that cover the glomerulus that allows for filtration?

They form a slit like diaphragm

25

What is the epithelial type that covers the parietal layer of Bowman's capsule?

Simple squamous with BL

26

What is Bowman's space? What does it contain?

the space between the visceral and parietal layers of Bowman's capsule

contains ultrafiltrate

27

What comprises the vascular pole of a renal corpuscle?

Sites where Afferent and Efferent glomerular aterioles enter

28

Where does the urinary pole of a glomerulus lead to?

The proximal urinary tubule

29

What is the specialization of the arterioles in the renal corpuscle, that allows for transport of fluids out to the urinary (Bowman's) space?

Fenestrations

30

What are the 5 components of the filtration barrier of the renal corpuscle?

i) endothelial surface layer of glomerular capillaries

ii) fenestrated endothelium of glomerular capillary

iii) basal lamina (produced by endothelium and podocytes)

iv) subpodocyte space

v) visceral layer of Bowman's capsule (podocytes)

31

What are the finger-like processes that extend from podocytes?

Secondary processes (arise from a larger primary processes)

32

What is the protein that covers the spaces between the secondary processes of podocytes? What is its function?

Nephrin, which forms a diaphragm

33

What happens if there is a mutation in the nephrin gene?

Congenital nephrotic syndrome (massive proteinuria/edema)

34

What are mesangial cells?

Phagocytic cells between adjacent capillaries that phagocytoze the BL of capillaries when they become riddled with proteins

35

What is Alport's syndrome (hereditary glomerulonephritis)?

Mutation in Collagen IV causing a leaky BM of the glomerular capillaries. Results in hematuria, proteinuria, and progressive renal failure

36

What type of epithelium coves a proximal convoluted tubule? What specialization do they have?

Simple cuboidal with microvilli

37

Is the cytoplasm of the cells comprising the proximal convoluted tubule esosinophilic or basophilic?

VERY eosiniphilic d/t mitochondira

38

True or false: the proximal straight tubule has a similar structure to the proximal convoluted tubule, except that is it straight

True

39

How can you distinguish between vasa recta and the thin loop of henle?

There will be blood in the vasa recta, and vasa recta have simple squamous epithelium

40

How can one distinguish between sections of the proximal convoluted tubule from the distal one?

Distal one will have light staining tubules WITHOUT microvillli.

Proximal has dark staining cuboidal cells, WITH microvilli

41

What is the order of loops of a nephron? (5)

Proximal convoluted
Thick descending
thin
thick ascending
Thick distal convoluted tubule

42

What is the loops of Henle?

The entire U

43

What is the macula densa?

modified segment of the distal tubule the connects to the glomerulus

44

Is the collecting tubule part of a nephron? Part of the uriniferous tubule?

It is part of the uriniferous tubule, but not part of the nephron

45

The DCT empties into what? What does that then drain into?

an arched collecting tubule that drains into a cortical/medullary collecting duct

46

What type of epithelium do the collecting ducts have?

Simple cuboidal

47

What are the papillary collecting ducts of Bellini? Epithelium type here?

formed by many collecting tubules.

Simple columnar epithelium

48

What is the collection of ducts of Bellini that enters into minor calyxes called?

Renal papilla

49

What type of epithelium cover a renal papilla?

transitional epithelium

50

true or false: there is smooth muscle at the level of the minor calyx to squeeze urine contents into the major calyx

True

51

What are juxtaglomerular cells? (where are they found, what do they contain, and what do they function as?)

Cells next to an afferent arteriole near the glomerulus that contain Renin, and function as baroreceptors

52

What is the function of Renin? What happens after that?

Converts angiotensinogen to angiotension I.

ACE convert to angiotension II

53

What is the function of angiotension II?

constricts aterioles, and stimulates the secretion of aldosterone

54

What is the function of the aldersterone that is released by the suprarenal cortex in response to angiotension II?

Stimulates the macula densa cells to take in Na/Cl

55

What is the blood supply to the glomerulus?

Afferent glomerular arterioles

56

What type of epithelium lines the ureter? What is beneath this (2)?

Transitional epithelium on a BL and LP

57

Where does the ureter have a two layered muscularis? Three layered?

Upper 2/3 of ureter

Lower 1/3

58

What are the three layers of the distal 1/3 of the ureter?

Inner longitudinal
middle circular
outer longitudinal

59

true or false: Ureters deliver urine to the urinary bladder via peristaltic waves produced by the muscularis and not by gravitational forces

True

60

What type of epithlium lines the mucosa of the female urethra?

transitional then stratified squamous

61

What type of epithlium lines the mucosa prostatic urethra?

Transitional

62

What are the three parts to the urethra in males?

Prostatic
Membranous
Spongy (penile)

63

What type of epithlium lines the mucosa of the membranous urethra?

stratified columnar epithelium

64

What type of epithlium lines the mucosa of the spongy urethra?

pseudostratified columnar epithelium