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Flashcards in Respiratory system Deck (85):
1

What are the three principle functions of respiration?

1. Air conduction
2. Air filtration
3. Gas exchange

2

What are the two portions of the airway?

Conducting system
Respiratory system

3

What comprises the respiratory system of the airway?

alveoli

4

What is the function of the conducting airways?

Transport, conditioning, and filtering

5

What are the four structures of the extrapulmonary conducting airway?

1. Nasal vestibule and cavity
2. Nasopharynx and oropharynx
3. Larynx
4. Trachea and primary bronchi

6

What structure gives rise to the lobular bronchioles?

terminal bronchi

7

What part of the bronchi undergoes divisions, giving rise to 20 division?

Tertiary bronchi

8

What is anthracosis? Where does it occur?

Deposition of carbon in macrophages, occurring in the lymph vessels around secondary pulmonary lobules

9

Lymphangitic spread of tumors may show nodules within what structure?

the interlobular septa of the secondary pulmonary lobule

10

Each terminal bronchiole and its respiratory bronchiolar branches supply what structyres?

Pulmonary acinus

11

What is the branching that occurs after the bronchiole?

Terminal bronchiole
Respiratory bronchiole
Alveoli

12

Each respiratory bronchiole supplies what structure?

Respiratory bronchioloar unit

13

What are the four structures that make up the respiratory airways?

1. Respiratory bronchiolar unit
2. Alveolar ducts
3. Alveolar sacs
4. Alveoli

14

What type of epithelium covers the olfactory region of the nasopharynx?

pseudostratified columnar

15

What underlies the basal lamina of the olfactory epithelium?

Lamina propria

16

What is the division between the extrapulmonary and intrapulmonary systems?

Between the bronchi and the secondary bronchi

17

What are the four cell types that reside in the olfactory epithelium?

1. Olfactory receptor cells
2. Sustentacular cells
3. Brush cells
4. Basal cells

18

What type of neurons at the olfactory receptor cells?

Bipolar neurons

19

What is the olfactory vesicle part of the bipolar neuron? What projects from this?

The single dendrite at the apical surface of the epithelium

6-8, nonmotile cilia project from this

20

Where does the basal axon of the olfactory receptor cells go?

Penetrates the basal lamina to enter the lamina propria

21

What en-sheathes the axon of the olfactor receptor cell in the lamina propria?

a special type of glial cell sharing the properties of astrocytes and non-myelinating Schwann cells

22

The sustentacular (supporting) cells of the olfactory epithelium are of what shape, with what specialization?

Columnar cells with apical microvilli forming a striated border

23

What is the function of the Sustentacular (supporting) cells? (2)

1. Provide support and nourishment for olfactory cells

2. insulate the olfactory cells from one another

24

What imparts the yellow-brown pigementation to the sustentacular cells?

Lipofuscin

25

The brush cells of the olfactory epithelium are in contact with what nerve? What specialization does their apical domain have?

CN V

Apical domain has microvilli

26

Where are the basal cells of the olfactory epithelium found? What is their function?

Anchored to the basal lamina

Function = regeneration

27

The lobular (primary) bronchiole supplies what structure?

a secondary pulmonary lobule

28

Each secondary lobule is surrounded by a septum. What does each septum have?

vessels, lymph

29

What is the branching that occurs after the lobular bronchiole?

Terminal bronchiole, respiratory bronchiole, and alveoli

30

What do terminal bronchioles supple?

A pulmonary acinus

31

What do respiratory bronchioles supply?

a primary pulmonary lobule

32

Where do the lymphatic and venous system travel in the secondary pulmonary lobules?

In the septa

33

What are the three major components of the olfactory mucosa?

Epithlium, basal lamina, lamina propria

34

Which part of the bipolar neurons that make up the olfactory receptor cells actually receive signals?

The 6-8 nonmotile cilia

35

What is distinct about the olfactory epithelium?

Pseudostratified nuclei are MORE distributed throughout the epithelium

36

What are Bowman's glands?

The olfactory glans in the olfactory epithelium

37

What are swell bodies?

Cellular bodies that intermittently swell on one side of the nasopharyx, or the other at any given time

38

What are the three histological characteristics/cell type of the olfactor epithelium?

Bowman's glands
Unmyelindated nerve bundles
swell bodies

39

The mucosa of the larynx is continuous with what structure below, and above?

above = pharynx
Below = trachea

40

What type of epithelum covers the larynx? (respiratory epithelium)

ciliated, pseudostratified columnar with goblet cells

41

What is the importance of the cilia in the respiratory epithelium?

Clearance of mucus

42

What part of the larynx does not have respiratory epithelium? What type of epithelium is present there?

Vocal cords have non-keratinized, stratified squamous

43

What three parts of the larynx are covered by non-keratinized, stratified squamous epithelium?

1. vocal folds
2. anterior surface of epiglottis
3. exterior laryngeal surfaces

44

What is the function of the seromucus glands that are in the laryngeal ventricle?

Keep the vocal cords moist

45

Where is the vocal ligament found?

in the lamina propria overlying the vocalis muscle of the true vocal cord

46

What is Reinke’s space?

The part of the lamina propria lying between the basal lamina and the vocal ligament.

47

What happens to the cell diversity when going from the larger airways to the smaller ones? (increases, decreases, same)

Diversity decreases

48

What are the epithelial cell types found in the trachea and primary bronchus? Other cells (4)?

1. Ciliated columnar cells
2. Goblet cells
3. Basal cells
4. Neuroendocrine cells
5. Brush cells

49

What is the combined function of the ciliated columnar cells and the goblet cells in the upper airway?

Mucus escalator

50

What is the function of basal cells in the bronchiole epithelium (and generally)?

Stem cells

51

What are the two non-epithelial cells found in the airways?

Intraepithelial lymphocytes
Mast cells

52

What is the epithelial type found in primary lobules? What are the cells that are present here? (3)

Ciliated columnar and cuboidal cells

Goblet cells
Basal cells
Brush cells

53

What are the four cell types that are present in the terminal bronchioles?

1. Ciliated cuboidal cells
2. Non-ciliated cuboidal cells
3. Club cells
4. Brush cells

54

What are the two cell types at the level of the respiratory brochiole? Epithelium here?

1. (Non)/Ciliated cuboidal cells
2. Club cells
3. Type I pneumocytes

55

What are the two cell types at the level of the alveoli?

Type I and type II pneumocytes

56

What are the four wall layers in the trachea and the primary bronchus?

1. mucosa
2. submucosa with glands
3. Cartilage
4. Adventitia

57

What are the five wall layers in the intrapulmonary bronchi?

1. mucosa
2. muscularis
3. submucosa with glands
4. Cartilage
5. Adventitia

58

What are the three wall layers in the bronchioles?

1. mucosa
2. muscularis
3. fibroelastic CT layer

59

What is the submucosa of the trachea's hallmark feature?

Secratory mucus glands

60

Where is the muscularis located in the intrapulmonary bronchus?

Between the mucosa and the submucosa

61

What is secreted from the submucosal glands in the intrapulmonary bronchus? (5)

1. Mucins
2. Lactoferrin
3. Lysozyme
4. IgA
5. Alpha-1-antitrysin

62

What is the function of lactoferrin?

eliminates Fe from secretions so that bacteria cannot use it

63

Where does the IgA come from that is secreted by the glandular cells in the intrapulmonary bronchus?

Plasma cells

64

What is the function of alpha-1-antitrypsin secreted by the glands of the intrapulmonary bronchus?

Keep proteases in check

65

What are the 4 modifications of the airway in pts with asthma?

1. increase in mucus
2. increase in BL
3. increase in thickness of lamina propria (d/t inflammatory cells)
4. increase in thickness of muscularis
5. Increase in glands of the submucoa

66

What are the changes that take place in chronic bronchitis?

1. Sqamous metaplasia
2. increased basement membrane d/t inflammatory cells
3. hypertrophy of muscularis
4. Glands increased in submucosa

67

As you travel from larger to smaller bronchioles, what happens to the epithelium?

Goes from pseudostratified columnar to simple cuboidal

68

Do terminal bronchioles have cartilage? A submucosa? submucosal glands?

No

69

Which wall layer is prominent in a bronchiole?

Muscular layer

70

What is in the apical domain of club cells?

Secretory granules

71

What is CC 16?

Antiinflammatory and antioxidant secreted by club cells

72

What do club cells secrete?

Surfactant

73

When does CC 16 protein increase?

When there is damage to bronchioles

74

If there is no cartilage in bronchioles, what maintains its shape?

Elastic fibers in fibroelastic lamina

75

What is the main function of club cells, besides secretion?

divide to replace bronchiolar and alveolar epithelial cells.

76

What are the three cellular residents of alveoli?

Type I pneumocytes
Type II pneumocytes
Macrophages

77

What is the shape of type I alveolar cells?

extremely thin squamous cells--form 90% of SA

78

Can type I alveolar cells divide?

No

79

What is the shape of type II pneumocytes? What specialization do they have?

Cuboidal with short apical microvilli

80

What are lamellar bodies?

Bodies in type II pneumocytes that contain surfactant

81

What is the function of surfactant? When in development is it produced?

Reduce surface tension

20-22 weeks

82

Surfactant is continuously produced as it is turned over by the endocytotic action of type II pneumocytes and alveolar macrophages. What is the mechanism that brings in surfactant?

receptor-mediated endocytosis.

83

What is the effect of DM II on fetuses?

Increase in respiratory distress syndrome d/t hyperinsulinemia, and resultant decrease in corticosteroid synthesis

84

What regenerates Type I and II penumocytes?

Division of type II

85

Why are macrophages heart failure cells?

Accumulate in heart tissue with hemosiderin