Flashcards in Respiratory system Deck (85):
What are the three principle functions of respiration?
1. Air conduction
2. Air filtration
3. Gas exchange
What are the two portions of the airway?
What comprises the respiratory system of the airway?
What is the function of the conducting airways?
Transport, conditioning, and filtering
What are the four structures of the extrapulmonary conducting airway?
1. Nasal vestibule and cavity
2. Nasopharynx and oropharynx
4. Trachea and primary bronchi
What structure gives rise to the lobular bronchioles?
What part of the bronchi undergoes divisions, giving rise to 20 division?
What is anthracosis? Where does it occur?
Deposition of carbon in macrophages, occurring in the lymph vessels around secondary pulmonary lobules
Lymphangitic spread of tumors may show nodules within what structure?
the interlobular septa of the secondary pulmonary lobule
Each terminal bronchiole and its respiratory bronchiolar branches supply what structyres?
What is the branching that occurs after the bronchiole?
Each respiratory bronchiole supplies what structure?
Respiratory bronchioloar unit
What are the four structures that make up the respiratory airways?
1. Respiratory bronchiolar unit
2. Alveolar ducts
3. Alveolar sacs
What type of epithelium covers the olfactory region of the nasopharynx?
What underlies the basal lamina of the olfactory epithelium?
What is the division between the extrapulmonary and intrapulmonary systems?
Between the bronchi and the secondary bronchi
What are the four cell types that reside in the olfactory epithelium?
1. Olfactory receptor cells
2. Sustentacular cells
3. Brush cells
4. Basal cells
What type of neurons at the olfactory receptor cells?
What is the olfactory vesicle part of the bipolar neuron? What projects from this?
The single dendrite at the apical surface of the epithelium
6-8, nonmotile cilia project from this
Where does the basal axon of the olfactory receptor cells go?
Penetrates the basal lamina to enter the lamina propria
What en-sheathes the axon of the olfactor receptor cell in the lamina propria?
a special type of glial cell sharing the properties of astrocytes and non-myelinating Schwann cells
The sustentacular (supporting) cells of the olfactory epithelium are of what shape, with what specialization?
Columnar cells with apical microvilli forming a striated border
What is the function of the Sustentacular (supporting) cells? (2)
1. Provide support and nourishment for olfactory cells
2. insulate the olfactory cells from one another
What imparts the yellow-brown pigementation to the sustentacular cells?
The brush cells of the olfactory epithelium are in contact with what nerve? What specialization does their apical domain have?
Apical domain has microvilli
Where are the basal cells of the olfactory epithelium found? What is their function?
Anchored to the basal lamina
Function = regeneration
The lobular (primary) bronchiole supplies what structure?
a secondary pulmonary lobule
Each secondary lobule is surrounded by a septum. What does each septum have?
What is the branching that occurs after the lobular bronchiole?
Terminal bronchiole, respiratory bronchiole, and alveoli
What do terminal bronchioles supple?
A pulmonary acinus
What do respiratory bronchioles supply?
a primary pulmonary lobule
Where do the lymphatic and venous system travel in the secondary pulmonary lobules?
In the septa
What are the three major components of the olfactory mucosa?
Epithlium, basal lamina, lamina propria
Which part of the bipolar neurons that make up the olfactory receptor cells actually receive signals?
The 6-8 nonmotile cilia
What is distinct about the olfactory epithelium?
Pseudostratified nuclei are MORE distributed throughout the epithelium
What are Bowman's glands?
The olfactory glans in the olfactory epithelium
What are swell bodies?
Cellular bodies that intermittently swell on one side of the nasopharyx, or the other at any given time
What are the three histological characteristics/cell type of the olfactor epithelium?
Unmyelindated nerve bundles
The mucosa of the larynx is continuous with what structure below, and above?
above = pharynx
Below = trachea
What type of epithelum covers the larynx? (respiratory epithelium)
ciliated, pseudostratified columnar with goblet cells
What is the importance of the cilia in the respiratory epithelium?
Clearance of mucus
What part of the larynx does not have respiratory epithelium? What type of epithelium is present there?
Vocal cords have non-keratinized, stratified squamous
What three parts of the larynx are covered by non-keratinized, stratified squamous epithelium?
1. vocal folds
2. anterior surface of epiglottis
3. exterior laryngeal surfaces
What is the function of the seromucus glands that are in the laryngeal ventricle?
Keep the vocal cords moist
Where is the vocal ligament found?
in the lamina propria overlying the vocalis muscle of the true vocal cord
What is Reinke’s space?
The part of the lamina propria lying between the basal lamina and the vocal ligament.
What happens to the cell diversity when going from the larger airways to the smaller ones? (increases, decreases, same)
What are the epithelial cell types found in the trachea and primary bronchus? Other cells (4)?
1. Ciliated columnar cells
2. Goblet cells
3. Basal cells
4. Neuroendocrine cells
5. Brush cells
What is the combined function of the ciliated columnar cells and the goblet cells in the upper airway?
What is the function of basal cells in the bronchiole epithelium (and generally)?
What are the two non-epithelial cells found in the airways?
What is the epithelial type found in primary lobules? What are the cells that are present here? (3)
Ciliated columnar and cuboidal cells
What are the four cell types that are present in the terminal bronchioles?
1. Ciliated cuboidal cells
2. Non-ciliated cuboidal cells
3. Club cells
4. Brush cells
What are the two cell types at the level of the respiratory brochiole? Epithelium here?
1. (Non)/Ciliated cuboidal cells
2. Club cells
3. Type I pneumocytes
What are the two cell types at the level of the alveoli?
Type I and type II pneumocytes
What are the four wall layers in the trachea and the primary bronchus?
2. submucosa with glands
What are the five wall layers in the intrapulmonary bronchi?
3. submucosa with glands
What are the three wall layers in the bronchioles?
3. fibroelastic CT layer
What is the submucosa of the trachea's hallmark feature?
Secratory mucus glands
Where is the muscularis located in the intrapulmonary bronchus?
Between the mucosa and the submucosa
What is secreted from the submucosal glands in the intrapulmonary bronchus? (5)
What is the function of lactoferrin?
eliminates Fe from secretions so that bacteria cannot use it
Where does the IgA come from that is secreted by the glandular cells in the intrapulmonary bronchus?
What is the function of alpha-1-antitrypsin secreted by the glands of the intrapulmonary bronchus?
Keep proteases in check
What are the 4 modifications of the airway in pts with asthma?
1. increase in mucus
2. increase in BL
3. increase in thickness of lamina propria (d/t inflammatory cells)
4. increase in thickness of muscularis
5. Increase in glands of the submucoa
What are the changes that take place in chronic bronchitis?
1. Sqamous metaplasia
2. increased basement membrane d/t inflammatory cells
3. hypertrophy of muscularis
4. Glands increased in submucosa
As you travel from larger to smaller bronchioles, what happens to the epithelium?
Goes from pseudostratified columnar to simple cuboidal
Do terminal bronchioles have cartilage? A submucosa? submucosal glands?
Which wall layer is prominent in a bronchiole?
What is in the apical domain of club cells?
What is CC 16?
Antiinflammatory and antioxidant secreted by club cells
What do club cells secrete?
When does CC 16 protein increase?
When there is damage to bronchioles
If there is no cartilage in bronchioles, what maintains its shape?
Elastic fibers in fibroelastic lamina
What is the main function of club cells, besides secretion?
divide to replace bronchiolar and alveolar epithelial cells.
What are the three cellular residents of alveoli?
Type I pneumocytes
Type II pneumocytes
What is the shape of type I alveolar cells?
extremely thin squamous cells--form 90% of SA
Can type I alveolar cells divide?
What is the shape of type II pneumocytes? What specialization do they have?
Cuboidal with short apical microvilli
What are lamellar bodies?
Bodies in type II pneumocytes that contain surfactant
What is the function of surfactant? When in development is it produced?
Reduce surface tension
Surfactant is continuously produced as it is turned over by the endocytotic action of type II pneumocytes and alveolar macrophages. What is the mechanism that brings in surfactant?
What is the effect of DM II on fetuses?
Increase in respiratory distress syndrome d/t hyperinsulinemia, and resultant decrease in corticosteroid synthesis
What regenerates Type I and II penumocytes?
Division of type II