Cell Structure and Function/Cell Membrane Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cell Structure and Function/Cell Membrane Deck (62):
1

What all cells have in common

each cell has a plasma membrane, a boundary between its interior and outside environment. The interior consists of cytoplasm and an innermost region of DNA

2

Prokaryotic Cells

Bacteria, internal membrane enclosed

3

Eukaryotic Cells

Cells of protists, plants, fungi and animals are eukaryotic. Have a nucleus and other membrane-enclosed compartments.

4

Cytoskeleton

Diverse protein filaments reinforce a cell's shape and keep its parts organized.

5

Cell Theory (text)

a foundation of modern bio, states cells re the fundamental unit of all life

6

Cell Theory four generalizations

Every living organism consists of one or more cells
smallest unit of life
all living cells come from division of other, pre existing cells
cells contain hereditary material

7

Cell

the smallest unit that shows the properties of life

8

Eukaryotic Cell

divided into various functional compartments, including a nucelus

9

Prokaryotic cells

usually smaller, simpler, none has a nucleus

10

Plasma Membrane

the cell's outer membrane. Separates metabolic activities from events outside of the cell, but does not isolate the cell's interior. Water, CD, and Ox can cross.

11

Nucleus

double membraned sac holds a eukaryotic cell's dna.

12

Nucleoid

The DNA inside prokaryotic cells is concentrated in a region of cytoplasm

13

Cytoplasm

A semifluid mixture of water, sugars, ions, and proteins between plasma membrane. Suspend cell components

14

Ribosomes

structure where proteins are built

15

Surface to volume ratio

strongly influences cell size and shape. An object's volume increase with the cube of its diameter, but its surface area increases only with the square.

16

Lipid bilayer

Structural foundation of all cell membranes, double layer of lipids organized so that their hydrophobic tails are sandwiched between their hydrophilic heads

17

Phospholipids

most abundant type of lipid in cell membrane

18

Modern Microscopes

curved glass lenses bend light and focus it as a magnified image of the specimen

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Transmission Electron Microscope

electrons passing through thin slice of specimen illuminate a fluorescent screen.

20

Flagella

slender cellular structures used for motion. A bacterial flagellum moves like a propeller that drives cell

21

Pili

project from the surface of some bacterial species, helps cling to or move across surfaces. (one sperm)

22

Biofilms

Single celled organisms live in a shared mass of slime

23

Organelle

Structures inside the cells, for example a nucleus

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Nucelus

Protecting controlling access to DNA

25

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

Routing, modifying new polypeptide chains; synthesizing lipids; other tasks

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Golgi Body

Modifying new polypeptide chains; sorting, shipping proteins and lipids

27

Vesicles

Transporting, storing, or digesting substances in a cell; other functions

28

Mitochondrion

Making ATP by sugar breakdown

29

Chloroplast

Making sugars in plants, some protists
Conducts photosynthesis

30

Lysosome

Intracellular digestion

31

Peroxisome

Inactivating toxins

32

Vacuole

dispose of waste

33

Ribosomes

Assembling polypeptide chains

34

Centriole

Anchor for cytoskeleton

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Rough ER

modifies proteins

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Smooth ER

makes lipids, breaks down carbs

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golgi body

ships lipids, enzymes and secretes proteins

38

Chloroplast

Specializes in photosynthesis

39

Nuclear Envelope

Pore riddled double membrane that controls which substances enter and leave the nucleus

40

Nucleoplasm

Semifluid Interior portion of the nucleus

41

Nucleolus

Rounded mass of proteins and copies of genes for ribosomal RNA used to construct ribosomal subunits

42

Chromatin

Total collection of all DNA Molecules and associated proteins in the nucleus; all of the cell's chromosomes

43

Chromosome

One DNA molecule and many proteins associated with it
we have 46 chromosomes

44

Endomembrane system

set of organelles that makes, modifies, and transport proteins and lipids. Main function is to make lipids, enzymes and proteins for secretion or insertion into cell membrane.

45

Vesicles

small, membrane-enclosed, saclike organelles. Transport substances from one organelle to another

46

Peroxisomes

contains enzymes that digest fatty acids and amino acids

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Plastids

membrane enclosed, function in photosynthesis or storage in plants like chloroplast

48

Central Vacuole

keeps leaves firm, fluid pressure.

49

Primary wall

secreting strands of cellulose into the coating.

50

Cuticle

protective body covering made of cell secretions

51

Extracellular matrix (ECM)

supports and anchors cells, separates tissues, and functions in cell signaling

52

Cell junction

structures that connect a cell to other cells and to the environment

53

Cytoskeleton

reinforce, organize and move cell structures

54

Microtubules

are long, hollow cylinders that consist of subunits of the protein tubulin

55

Microfilaments

strengthen or change shape of eukaryotic cells

56

Cell cortex

A reinforcing mesh under the plasma membrane

57

Motor proteins

move cell parts in a sustain direction when they are repeatedly energized by ATP

58

Robert Hooke

First to visualize non living cells through a microscope to sketch and name cells

59

Anton Van

Fancy glass

60

Robert Brown

first to identify a cell nucleus

61

DNA purines

Adenine and guanine

62

DNA primidines

Thymine and cytosine