Flashcards in Cell Structure and Function/Cell Membrane Deck (62):
What all cells have in common
each cell has a plasma membrane, a boundary between its interior and outside environment. The interior consists of cytoplasm and an innermost region of DNA
Bacteria, internal membrane enclosed
Cells of protists, plants, fungi and animals are eukaryotic. Have a nucleus and other membrane-enclosed compartments.
Diverse protein filaments reinforce a cell's shape and keep its parts organized.
Cell Theory (text)
a foundation of modern bio, states cells re the fundamental unit of all life
Cell Theory four generalizations
Every living organism consists of one or more cells
smallest unit of life
all living cells come from division of other, pre existing cells
cells contain hereditary material
the smallest unit that shows the properties of life
divided into various functional compartments, including a nucelus
usually smaller, simpler, none has a nucleus
the cell's outer membrane. Separates metabolic activities from events outside of the cell, but does not isolate the cell's interior. Water, CD, and Ox can cross.
double membraned sac holds a eukaryotic cell's dna.
The DNA inside prokaryotic cells is concentrated in a region of cytoplasm
A semifluid mixture of water, sugars, ions, and proteins between plasma membrane. Suspend cell components
structure where proteins are built
Surface to volume ratio
strongly influences cell size and shape. An object's volume increase with the cube of its diameter, but its surface area increases only with the square.
Structural foundation of all cell membranes, double layer of lipids organized so that their hydrophobic tails are sandwiched between their hydrophilic heads
most abundant type of lipid in cell membrane
curved glass lenses bend light and focus it as a magnified image of the specimen
Transmission Electron Microscope
electrons passing through thin slice of specimen illuminate a fluorescent screen.
slender cellular structures used for motion. A bacterial flagellum moves like a propeller that drives cell
project from the surface of some bacterial species, helps cling to or move across surfaces. (one sperm)
Single celled organisms live in a shared mass of slime
Structures inside the cells, for example a nucleus
Protecting controlling access to DNA
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
Routing, modifying new polypeptide chains; synthesizing lipids; other tasks
Modifying new polypeptide chains; sorting, shipping proteins and lipids
Transporting, storing, or digesting substances in a cell; other functions
Making ATP by sugar breakdown
Making sugars in plants, some protists
dispose of waste
Assembling polypeptide chains
Anchor for cytoskeleton
makes lipids, breaks down carbs
ships lipids, enzymes and secretes proteins
Specializes in photosynthesis
Pore riddled double membrane that controls which substances enter and leave the nucleus
Semifluid Interior portion of the nucleus
Rounded mass of proteins and copies of genes for ribosomal RNA used to construct ribosomal subunits
Total collection of all DNA Molecules and associated proteins in the nucleus; all of the cell's chromosomes
One DNA molecule and many proteins associated with it
we have 46 chromosomes
set of organelles that makes, modifies, and transport proteins and lipids. Main function is to make lipids, enzymes and proteins for secretion or insertion into cell membrane.
small, membrane-enclosed, saclike organelles. Transport substances from one organelle to another
contains enzymes that digest fatty acids and amino acids
membrane enclosed, function in photosynthesis or storage in plants like chloroplast
keeps leaves firm, fluid pressure.
secreting strands of cellulose into the coating.
protective body covering made of cell secretions
Extracellular matrix (ECM)
supports and anchors cells, separates tissues, and functions in cell signaling
structures that connect a cell to other cells and to the environment
reinforce, organize and move cell structures
are long, hollow cylinders that consist of subunits of the protein tubulin
strengthen or change shape of eukaryotic cells
A reinforcing mesh under the plasma membrane
move cell parts in a sustain direction when they are repeatedly energized by ATP
First to visualize non living cells through a microscope to sketch and name cells
first to identify a cell nucleus
Adenine and guanine