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Flashcards in DNA Structure and Function Deck (38):
1

What happened in Mice lab with bacteria

The killer bacteria was heated, but the hereditary information was still present so when combined with harmless bacteria, traits were found to be equally diverse

2

Bacteriophage

type of virus that infects bacteria, like a virus, has genetic material

3

DNA, not protein is

the material of heredity common to all life on earth

4

4 types of nucleotides linked to DNA

Adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine
A and T are always together, G and C are together

5

DNA Sequence

The order in which one base pair follows the next

6

DNA is the molecule of

inheritance in every cell, basis of lives, and variation in its base sequence from one individual or one species to the next is the basis of life's diversity

7

A cell copies...

its DNA before mitosis or meiosis

8

DNA polymerase

does the copying before mitosis or meiosis

9

Semiconservative replication

the process of dan strands replicating and the new strand goes winds up with the old one

10

DNA ligase

joins segments into a continuous strand of DNA

11

DNA repair mechanisms

fix DNA by enzymatically excising and replacing any damaged or mismatched bases before replication begins

12

Reproductive cloning

results in genetic copy of an adult individual, asexual

13

Somatic cell nuclear transfer

removes the nucleus from an unfertilized egg, then inserts into the egg a nucleus from an adult animal cell.

14

Therapeutic cloning

using stem cells for potential medical benefits

15

Chromatin

dna associated with protein

16

nucleosome

smallest unit of chromosomal organization in eurkaryotes

17

autosomes

each pair of chromosomes has a characteristics such as length and shape

18

monomers of nucleic acid

nucleotide

19

carbon 5

where phosphate groups attach

20

adenosine pairs with

thymine 2 hydrogen bond

21

quanine pairs with

cytosine 3 hydrogen bond

22

mutation

change in dna sequence

23

Give an example of a ‘motor protein’ and its function (is ATP required for that function?

Myosin for muscle contraction and its ATP dependent

24

How do pseudopodia form and why is the ability to form these structures beneficial for the cell?

To move to capture food

25

Flagella have the same structure and function in prokaryotes and eukaryotes T or F

yes

26

Which of the following is true of Cilia and Flagella in eukaryotes?

both of these structures are composed of microtubules

27

The Endomembrane System compartmentalizes the cell by separating its internal components from the remaining cytoplasmic contents of the cell T or F

True

28

What is the difference between exocytosis and endocytosis

Endocytis is a process in the cell that happens when a cell is taking in a substance(Nutrients, Medicine, etc.) for uses inside the cell,
Exocytosis is when the cell is getting rid of the waste

29

True or False: Energy from food that is not utilized by cell to build body mass is released as heat and can be utilized to drive other metabolic processes to fuel the body.

True

30

Where do cells store Energy? Which reactions require an energy input? Which reactions release energy? What is a reaction, anyway? (define) What is the difference between reactants and products? Which one has more energy?

The cells have phosphate and ADP groups floating around the cytoplasm. When these groups join, energy is stored for the cell to power things like active transport. When they join they become ATP a high energy compound. When the cell is ready to use the energy it breaks that chemical bond and they become ADP and a phosphate floating around the cytoplasm again.

31

What does ATP stand for

Adenosine triphosphate

32

Enzymes

they work by increasing the Activation Energy (the speed bump) to help the reaction proceed rapidly to completion

33

Diffusion

random movement of molecules from the area of higher concentration to the area of lower concentration, until they are equally distributed. (Passive/no cellular energy is needed to bring it about)

34

Osmosis

movement of water across a semi-permeable membrane, from an area of higher concentration to lower concentration.

35

Hyptertonic

hypertonic solution is one with a higher concentration of solutes outside the cell than inside the cell. When a cell is immersed into a hypertonic solution, the tendency is for water to flow out of the cell in order to balance the concentration of the solutes.

36

Hyptotonic

hypotonic cell environment is an environment with a lower concentration of solutes than the cytoplasm of the cell. In a hypotonic environment, osmosis causes a net flow of water into the cell, causing the swelling and expansion of the cell. This swelling may lead to the bursting of the cell.

37

isotonic environment

An isotonic environment is when the concentration of solutes and solvent (water) are the same.

38

DNA molecule consists of

two nucleotide chains (strands), running in opposite directions and coiled into a double helix
The sugar (deoxyribose) of one nucleotide bonds to the phosphate of the next nucleotide to form the ‘backbone’