Flashcards in DNA Structure and Function Deck (38):
What happened in Mice lab with bacteria
The killer bacteria was heated, but the hereditary information was still present so when combined with harmless bacteria, traits were found to be equally diverse
type of virus that infects bacteria, like a virus, has genetic material
DNA, not protein is
the material of heredity common to all life on earth
4 types of nucleotides linked to DNA
Adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine
A and T are always together, G and C are together
The order in which one base pair follows the next
DNA is the molecule of
inheritance in every cell, basis of lives, and variation in its base sequence from one individual or one species to the next is the basis of life's diversity
A cell copies...
its DNA before mitosis or meiosis
does the copying before mitosis or meiosis
the process of dan strands replicating and the new strand goes winds up with the old one
joins segments into a continuous strand of DNA
DNA repair mechanisms
fix DNA by enzymatically excising and replacing any damaged or mismatched bases before replication begins
results in genetic copy of an adult individual, asexual
Somatic cell nuclear transfer
removes the nucleus from an unfertilized egg, then inserts into the egg a nucleus from an adult animal cell.
using stem cells for potential medical benefits
dna associated with protein
smallest unit of chromosomal organization in eurkaryotes
each pair of chromosomes has a characteristics such as length and shape
monomers of nucleic acid
where phosphate groups attach
adenosine pairs with
thymine 2 hydrogen bond
quanine pairs with
cytosine 3 hydrogen bond
change in dna sequence
Give an example of a ‘motor protein’ and its function (is ATP required for that function?
Myosin for muscle contraction and its ATP dependent
How do pseudopodia form and why is the ability to form these structures beneficial for the cell?
To move to capture food
Flagella have the same structure and function in prokaryotes and eukaryotes T or F
Which of the following is true of Cilia and Flagella in eukaryotes?
both of these structures are composed of microtubules
The Endomembrane System compartmentalizes the cell by separating its internal components from the remaining cytoplasmic contents of the cell T or F
What is the difference between exocytosis and endocytosis
Endocytis is a process in the cell that happens when a cell is taking in a substance(Nutrients, Medicine, etc.) for uses inside the cell,
Exocytosis is when the cell is getting rid of the waste
True or False: Energy from food that is not utilized by cell to build body mass is released as heat and can be utilized to drive other metabolic processes to fuel the body.
Where do cells store Energy? Which reactions require an energy input? Which reactions release energy? What is a reaction, anyway? (define) What is the difference between reactants and products? Which one has more energy?
The cells have phosphate and ADP groups floating around the cytoplasm. When these groups join, energy is stored for the cell to power things like active transport. When they join they become ATP a high energy compound. When the cell is ready to use the energy it breaks that chemical bond and they become ADP and a phosphate floating around the cytoplasm again.
What does ATP stand for
they work by increasing the Activation Energy (the speed bump) to help the reaction proceed rapidly to completion
random movement of molecules from the area of higher concentration to the area of lower concentration, until they are equally distributed. (Passive/no cellular energy is needed to bring it about)
movement of water across a semi-permeable membrane, from an area of higher concentration to lower concentration.
hypertonic solution is one with a higher concentration of solutes outside the cell than inside the cell. When a cell is immersed into a hypertonic solution, the tendency is for water to flow out of the cell in order to balance the concentration of the solutes.
hypotonic cell environment is an environment with a lower concentration of solutes than the cytoplasm of the cell. In a hypotonic environment, osmosis causes a net flow of water into the cell, causing the swelling and expansion of the cell. This swelling may lead to the bursting of the cell.
An isotonic environment is when the concentration of solutes and solvent (water) are the same.