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Flashcards in From DNA to Proteins Deck (27):
1

Transcription

converts information in a gene to RNA; translation converts information in an mRNA to protein

2

RNA nucleoside differs from DNA

Uracil, not thymine.

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Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

protein synthesis, main component of ribosomes, structures upon which polypeptide chains are built.

4

Transfer RNA (tRNA)

protein synthesis, delivers amino acids to ribosomes, one by one.

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Messenger RNA (mRNA)

protein synthesis, orders the delivery of amino acids to ribosome(tRNA). transcribes the information

6

Translation

from mRNA to protein

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Gene expression

A multistep process by which genetic information encoded by a gene is converted into a structural or functional part of a cell or body

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RNA Polymerase

links RNA nucleotides into a chain, in the order dictated by the base sequence of a gene, aka adds more nucleotides to the end of a growing transcript

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Promoter

binding site in the DNA, starts the transcription

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Introns

Nucleotide sequence that are removed from a new RNA

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Exons

sequence that stay in the RNA

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Alternative splicing

one gene can encode different proteins

13

Codon

a "word", made of four nucleotides, a code for a particular amino acid

14

Genetic code

The 64 possibilities of codes total.

15

first signal

AUG

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Stop codons

UAA, UAG, and UGA

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Anticodon

a triplet of nucleotides that base pairs with an mRNA codon. part of the tRNA attachment sites

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Translation

converts information carried by an mRNA into a new polypeptide chain. second part of protein synthesis.

19

Base-pair substitution

one nucleotide and its partner are replaced by a different base pair

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Deletion

mutation, in which one or more bases is lost, is smaller than a chromosomal deletion.

21

Transposable elements

segments of DNA that can insert themselves anywhere in a chromosome.

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DNA ---RNA---Proteins

Replication---transcription---translation

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Where is RNA made

Nucleus

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Silent Mutation

Same amino acids but no affect of mutation

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Base Pair Substitution

One nucleotide and particular replaced by another pair

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Frameshift

codon shifts

27

Transposable elements

segments of DNA that can insert themselves anywhere in chromosomal