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Flashcards in week 7 review questions Deck (72)
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1

What is the difference between totipotent stem cells, pluripotent stem cells and unipotent stem cells?

“Totipotent” embryonic stem cells develop into an individual; zygote & cells arising from first 4 divisions of new embryo. “Pluripotent” embryonic stem cells give rise to any cell type, later cell divisions of the embryo. Unipotent most adult stem cells are “unipotent” & give rise only to specific cell lineages (ex: blood, skin).

2

T/F: During the process of differentiation a cell is influenced by gene expression to become committed to a certain lineage of cells, for example, epithelial cells.

true

3

T/F De-differentiation is a means by which researchers attempt to reprogram committed cells back to a pluripotent state.

true

4

What is the difference between gap junctions, tight junctions and adhering junctions?

Gap Junctions: Channel connects cytoplasm between cells ex: Ions and Molecules Pass cell 2 cell
Tight Junctions: Prevent fluid movement between cells Adhering Junctions:Connect cells together, connect cytoskeletal elements to ECM.

5

Name the four types of tissues found in vertebrates

epithelial Tissue, Connective Tissue, Muscle Tissue Nervous Tissue.

6

T/F: Interstitial Fluid is a type of Extracellular Fluid.

true

7

T/F: Intracellular Fluid makes up the aqueous external environment of the cell.

false

8

T/F: Evolution does not involve the production of new structures; instead it modifies existing ones.

true

9

T/F: Simple cuboidal epithelium is a thin, flat tissue that allows rapid diffusion through the cells.

false,Functions in absorption and secretion, movement of materials

10

T/F: The function of microvilli is to decrease the surface area of a cell to prevent secretion and absorption.

False,Increase the free surface area for absorption or secretion of substances

11

Multiple Choice: Which of the following is true of Exocrine Glands? A. products are secreted via ducts to a surface (internal or external) B. products are secreted into the extracellular environment via exocytosis C. These glands are derived from epithelium D. More than one of these is correct E. None of these are correct

all are true

12

T/F: Epithelial cells synthesize and secrete their own basement membrane and connective tissue cells such as fibroblasts synthesize and secrete their own ECM.

true

13

T/F: Bone and cartilage are specialized tissues that are manufactured by osteocytes

true

14

T/F: Blood is considered to be a specialized connective tissue.

true

15

Multiple Choice: Which of the following is true of Muscle Tissue? A. Branched, striated cells with a single nucleus make up Skeletal Muscle B. Branched, spindle shaped cells with many nuclei make up Smooth Muscle (In walls of hollow organs (involuntary) No striations, single nuclei)
C. Branched, striated cells with many nuclei (single nuclei) make up Cardiac Muscle D. None of these are correct

D. None
corrections:
a. many nuclei
b.(In walls of hollow organs (involuntary) No striations, single nuclei
c. single nuclei

16

Which types of muscle tissue are under voluntary control? Involuntary?

Voluntary: Skeletal Involuntary: smooth and cardiac

17

What are the three types of neurons?

Sensory, Interneuron, Motor

18

True or False: Neuroglia send and receive electro-chemical signals.

true

19

T/F: The dermis is the upper layer of the skin which contains melanocytes and keratinocytes.

false

20

T/F: The epidermis is the upper layer of the skin which contains dense connective tissue and collagen

false,contain keratinocytes

21

T/F: The dermis is the lower layer of the skin which contains dense connective tissue and collagen.

true

22

T/F: The hypodermis covers the two layers of the skin with secreted keratin, a water-proof protein.

false.(an underlying layer of connective and adipose tissue)

23

True or False: Collagen is a protein that gives strength and structural support to connective tissues.

true

24

Multiple Choice: Which of the following is true of the Integumentary System? A. Functions as a barrier against pathogens. B. Functions to prevent water loss and maintain internal temperature C. Functions to detect external stimuli and transmit sensory info to CNS D. All are true

All are true

25

Describe the role of a negative feed-back mechanism in the control of body temperature

A process in which a change causes a response that reverses the change. Example: A negative feedback mechanism keeps internal body temperature near 37°C (98.6°F). When internal temperature rises, changes in blood flow, respiration, and sweat production cool the body.

26

Multiple Choice: Which of the following is true of bony fish?
A. in a marine environment, these fish tend to gain water B. in a marine environment, these fish tend to lose water C. in a fresh-water environment, these fish tend to gain water D. in a fresh-water environment, these fish tend to lose water E. Since they live in water, these fish do not need kidneys & do not produce urine F. More than one of these is true (if so, which?)

B. in a marine environment, these fish tend to lose water C. in a fresh-water environment, these fish tend to gain water

27

T/F: Kangaroo rats have very small kidneys because they live their entire lives without ingesting water.

false. large

28

T/F: Protein breakdown results in the production of ammonia which is toxic to the body.

true.

29

T/F: Ammonia is converted to less toxic compounds and then excreted by the kidney.

true.

30

Multiple Choice: Which of the following is true of the Urinary System? A. Urine is formed by the kidneys and transported to the bladder via ureters B. Urine is formed by the kidneys and transported to the bladder via the urethra C. Urine is formed by the kidneys and stored in the bladder until released from the body D. Urine is formed in the kidneys by nephrons, and stored in the urethra.

A. Urine is formed by the kidneys and transported to the bladder via ureters C. Urine is formed by the kidneys and stored in the bladder until released from the body