Flashcards in week 7 review questions Deck (72):
What is the difference between totipotent stem cells, pluripotent stem cells and unipotent stem cells?
“Totipotent” embryonic stem cells develop into an individual; zygote & cells arising from first 4 divisions of new embryo. “Pluripotent” embryonic stem cells give rise to any cell type, later cell divisions of the embryo. Unipotent most adult stem cells are “unipotent” & give rise only to specific cell lineages (ex: blood, skin).
T/F: During the process of differentiation a cell is influenced by gene expression to become committed to a certain lineage of cells, for example, epithelial cells.
T/F De-differentiation is a means by which researchers attempt to reprogram committed cells back to a pluripotent state.
What is the difference between gap junctions, tight junctions and adhering junctions?
Gap Junctions: Channel connects cytoplasm between cells ex: Ions and Molecules Pass cell 2 cell
Tight Junctions: Prevent fluid movement between cells Adhering Junctions:Connect cells together, connect cytoskeletal elements to ECM.
Name the four types of tissues found in vertebrates
epithelial Tissue, Connective Tissue, Muscle Tissue Nervous Tissue.
T/F: Interstitial Fluid is a type of Extracellular Fluid.
T/F: Intracellular Fluid makes up the aqueous external environment of the cell.
T/F: Evolution does not involve the production of new structures; instead it modifies existing ones.
T/F: Simple cuboidal epithelium is a thin, flat tissue that allows rapid diffusion through the cells.
false,Functions in absorption and secretion, movement of materials
T/F: The function of microvilli is to decrease the surface area of a cell to prevent secretion and absorption.
False,Increase the free surface area for absorption or secretion of substances
Multiple Choice: Which of the following is true of Exocrine Glands? A. products are secreted via ducts to a surface (internal or external) B. products are secreted into the extracellular environment via exocytosis C. These glands are derived from epithelium D. More than one of these is correct E. None of these are correct
all are true
T/F: Epithelial cells synthesize and secrete their own basement membrane and connective tissue cells such as fibroblasts synthesize and secrete their own ECM.
T/F: Bone and cartilage are specialized tissues that are manufactured by osteocytes
T/F: Blood is considered to be a specialized connective tissue.
Multiple Choice: Which of the following is true of Muscle Tissue? A. Branched, striated cells with a single nucleus make up Skeletal Muscle B. Branched, spindle shaped cells with many nuclei make up Smooth Muscle (In walls of hollow organs (involuntary) No striations, single nuclei)
C. Branched, striated cells with many nuclei (single nuclei) make up Cardiac Muscle D. None of these are correct
a. many nuclei
b.(In walls of hollow organs (involuntary) No striations, single nuclei
c. single nuclei
Which types of muscle tissue are under voluntary control? Involuntary?
Voluntary: Skeletal Involuntary: smooth and cardiac
What are the three types of neurons?
Sensory, Interneuron, Motor
True or False: Neuroglia send and receive electro-chemical signals.
T/F: The dermis is the upper layer of the skin which contains melanocytes and keratinocytes.
T/F: The epidermis is the upper layer of the skin which contains dense connective tissue and collagen
T/F: The dermis is the lower layer of the skin which contains dense connective tissue and collagen.
T/F: The hypodermis covers the two layers of the skin with secreted keratin, a water-proof protein.
false.(an underlying layer of connective and adipose tissue)
True or False: Collagen is a protein that gives strength and structural support to connective tissues.
Multiple Choice: Which of the following is true of the Integumentary System? A. Functions as a barrier against pathogens. B. Functions to prevent water loss and maintain internal temperature C. Functions to detect external stimuli and transmit sensory info to CNS D. All are true
All are true
Describe the role of a negative feed-back mechanism in the control of body temperature
A process in which a change causes a response that reverses the change. Example: A negative feedback mechanism keeps internal body temperature near 37°C (98.6°F). When internal temperature rises, changes in blood flow, respiration, and sweat production cool the body.
Multiple Choice: Which of the following is true of bony fish?
A. in a marine environment, these fish tend to gain water B. in a marine environment, these fish tend to lose water C. in a fresh-water environment, these fish tend to gain water D. in a fresh-water environment, these fish tend to lose water E. Since they live in water, these fish do not need kidneys & do not produce urine F. More than one of these is true (if so, which?)
B. in a marine environment, these fish tend to lose water C. in a fresh-water environment, these fish tend to gain water
T/F: Kangaroo rats have very small kidneys because they live their entire lives without ingesting water.
T/F: Protein breakdown results in the production of ammonia which is toxic to the body.
T/F: Ammonia is converted to less toxic compounds and then excreted by the kidney.
Multiple Choice: Which of the following is true of the Urinary System? A. Urine is formed by the kidneys and transported to the bladder via ureters B. Urine is formed by the kidneys and transported to the bladder via the urethra C. Urine is formed by the kidneys and stored in the bladder until released from the body D. Urine is formed in the kidneys by nephrons, and stored in the urethra.
A. Urine is formed by the kidneys and transported to the bladder via ureters C. Urine is formed by the kidneys and stored in the bladder until released from the body
T/F: There are +/- one million nephrons in the kidney.
T/F: Nephrons are the functional unit of the kidney—responsible for filtering the fluid in the blood.
Multiple Choice: Which of the following is true of the nephron? A. Nephrons consist of a Bowman’s Capsule, proximal and distal tubules and a Loop of Henle B. Nephrons have very thin walls, so diffusion can occur easily into and out of the tubules C. Nephrons filter the fluid that is forced out of blood capillaries and into the tubules D. Nephrons form & concentrate urine through filtration, absorption & secretion E. Nephrons are present in the cortex of the kidney only.
A. Nephrons consist of a Bowman’s Capsule, proximal and distal tubules and a Loop of Henle
T/F: In glomerular filtration, blood pressure forces fluid out of the blood and into the Bowman’s capsule
TRUE Blood is delivered to a cluster of capillaries (glomerulus) inside a Bowman’s capsule; fluid is forced out of the blood vessels and filtered.
T/F: In tubular secretion, substances needed by the body are reclaimed from the filtrate/urine
T/F: In tubular reabsorption, substances to be excreted are added to the filtrate/urine.
T/F: Urine becomes concentrated in the Loop of Henle by means of a concentration gradient in the medulla of the kidney—water is reclaimed from the filtrate by begin drawn out of the tubules (and back into the body).
ADH stands for
Antidiuretic hormone and is a hormone that conserves water.
Which endocrine gland synthesizes this hormone? Which endocrine gland releases this hormone?
ADH increases the number of aquaporins in the cell membrane of the tubules in the nephron—what is the function of an aquaporin?
Aquaporins are protein channels that allow for rapid movement of water molecule .Aldosterone is another hormone that conserves water—release of this hormone from the adrenal cortex is the result of the action of an enzyme known as renin which activates the angiotensin pathway.
T/F: Aldosterone acts on sodium/potassium pumps
T/F: ANP (Atrial Natriuretic Peptide) has the opposite function of ADH and Aldosterone—it acts to increase the amount of water leaving the body (to lower blood pressure and volume)
What is the difference between an ectotherm and an endotherm?
Ectotherm: Body temperature changes with the environment, regulated by altering position, not metabolism. Endotherm: Body temperature maintained by metabolic heat
T/F: An endothermic animal adjusts for heat stress by decreasing activity and dilating blood vessels to release heat. T/F An endothermic animal adjusts for cold stress by constricting blood vessels and shivering to conserve heat. T/F: An ectothermic animal must rely on behavioral responses to heat and cold stress—an example is basking in the sun to warm up.
What is the difference between the Central Nervous System and the Peripheral Nervous System?
Central Nervous System: Brain and spinal cord (mostly interneurons) aka CNS.
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): Nerves from the CNS to the rest of the body (efferent) and from the body to CNS (afferent) Autonomic nerves and somatic nerves control different organs of the body.
Which one is subdivided into the Somatic Nervous System and the Autonomic Nervous System?
Peripheral Nervous System
T/F: The Autonomic Nervous System is further divided into the Parasympathetic Nervous System and the Sympathetic Nervous System.
Which one of these is involved with the ‘fight-or-flight’ response?
Sympathetic nervous system
Which one is involved with relaxed, non-stress ‘normal’ activities?
. T/F: Schwann cells are a type of neuroglia that wrap around peripheral nerve axons—this allows the signals to travel as fast as 120 m/s.
What is the difference between sensory and motor neurons
Sensory neurons have an axon with one end that responds to stimuli; the other sends signals
Motor Neurons many dendrites and long axon
T/F: Sensory information arrives at the spinal cord via dorsal roots and motor signals leave the spinal cord vial ventral roots.
Multiple Choice: Which of the following is true of the structure of a neuron? A. An axon transmits an Action Potential and stimulates release of a Neurotransmitter (chemical signal) B. One or more dendrites receive Neurotransmitter (chemical signal) from other neurons C. Neurotransmitters are made in the cell body and stored in vesicles at the axon terminal until release D. All true…
D. All true
Multiple Choice: Which of the following is true of an Action Potential? A. This is the result of a change in electrical voltage across the cell membrane (usually negative in the cell and positive outside) in response to a stimulus B. Once a threshold has been reached, the Action Potential is “All or Nothing” (it WILL occur) C. As channels open in response to the change in electrical voltage, sodium enters the cell and Action Potential moves along the length of the axon in one direction (it can’t go back because channels close) D. Once the axon terminal is reached, the Action Potential stimulate Calcium ions to enter the cell and the vesicles containing Neurotransmitters release their contents via exocytosis
C. As channels open in response to the change in electrical voltage, sodium enters the cell and Action Potential moves along the length of the axon in one direction (it can’t go back because channels close)
Potassium not calcium
The hindbrain consists of
the medulla oblongata, pons, and cerebellum
T/F: The hindbrain controls respiration, heart rate and reflexes as well as motor activity
The forebrain consists of
the cerebrum, thalamus, and hypothalamus (part of the limbic system)
T/F: The forebrain is important in thought, memory, sensory and motor control and homeostasis.
Multiple Choice: Which of the following is true of the Hypothalmus? A. It is located under the thalamus B. It is involved in regulation of thirst, appetite, body temperature (homeostasis) C. It is an endocrine organ
all are true
T/F: The midbrain relays information to the forebrain
false. To the hindbrain
What are meninges? Give an example of a neuroglial cell in the brain and its function.
Meninges: Three membranes that cover and protect the CNS.
Neuroglial ex: Astrocytes stimulate formation of the blood-brain barrier, take up neurotransmitters, assist in immune defenses, release lactate, and synthesize nerve growth factor.
T/F: Hormones are released by endocrine organs or glands into the interstitial fluid or blood. T/F: Hormones must bind to a specific receptor on a target cell in order to effect a response.
both are true
T/F: The hypothalamus makes &releases hormones that control activity of the Anterior Pituitary Gland
T/F: The hypothalamus makes hormones that are stored and released by the Posterior Pituitary Gland
T/F: The Posterior Pituitary Gland synthesizes hormones that act on the thyroid.
T/F: The Anterior Pituitary Gland synthesizes hormones that act on the thyroid.
T/F: The Anterior Gland synthesizes Growth hormones that act on most tissues of the body.
T/F: Too much Growth Hormone in childhood results in Acromegaly
false. results in adulthood
T/F: Too much Growth Hormone in adulthood results in Achondroplasia.
false. results in childhood.
Multiple Choice: Which of the following is true of the Thyroid Gland? A. This endocrine gland synthesizes hormones which affect metabolism of most cells in the body. B. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone released by the hypothalamus increases activity of this gland C. Thyroid Releasing Hormone released by the Anterior Pituitary Gland increases activity of this gland D. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone released by the Posterior Pituitary Gland decrease activity of this gland
A. This endocrine gland synthesizes hormones which affect metabolism of most cells in the body.
T/F: Thyroid Releasing Hormone from the Hypothalamus leads to the release of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone from the Anterior Pituitary Gland which results in the synthesis and release of Thyroid Hormone from the Thyroid Gland.