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Anatomy & Physiology > Cells & Tissues > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cells & Tissues Deck (51):
1

Functions of connective tissue? (Tip: there are 4)

Support/Anchor
Transportation
Storage
Defence

2

Name the different types of connective tissue.
(Tip: There are 3 types)

Connective Tissue Proper
Fluid Connective Tissue
Supporting Connective Tissue

3

List some examples of the types of cells found within connective tissue proper.

Fibroblasts
Macrophages
Collagen
Mast Cells

4

Name and describe examples of Columnar Epithelium

Simple
Modified Simple
Complex

5

Define and describe a Eukaryotic cell

Multi-cellular organism
Contain a nucleus with DNA (Karyon)
Size 10-40 microns (or larger)
Extensive organelles

6

Describe endoplasmic reticulum (inc. function).

"Production line"
Two types - Rough & Smooth
Rough contains Ribosomes and is the site of protein synthesis within the cell
Smooth is the site of lipid synthesis in the cell

7

Describe the function and characteristics of epithelial tissue

Protective / Barrier function
Control absorption / secretion
Layers of closely bound cells supported by a basal membrane
1) covering internal and external surfaces of organs
2) lining of cavities and tubes

8

List the different types of epithelial tissue

Squamous
Cuboidal
Columnar

They can be either Simple, Stratified or Keratinised

9

What is the function of the Golgi Complex?

"Assembly & Packaging"
Assembly - Carbohydrate modification
Packaging - modifying & sorting proteins into vesicles

10

Describe the structure and function of a Lysosome

"Recycling centre of the cell"
- Small sacs containing enzymes
- Has an extreme pH
- Break down small food stuffs
- Destroy unwanted proteins and chemicals

11

Do Mitochondria contain DNA?

Yes

12

List 5 key organelles within a cell

Nucleus
ER
Golgi Complex
Mitochondria
Lysosomes

13

What is a prokaryote

A single celled organism

14

List the common characteristics of a Prokaryotic cell

No Nucleus
Hereditary information held in cytoplasm
Limited number of organelles
Cell wall & Capsule
1-5 Micron in size

15

What important eukaryotic cell does not contain a nucleus?

Erythrocyte

16

Example site of simple squamous epithelia

Capillaries

17

Example site(s) of stratified squamous epithelia

Oral cavities, anus, vagina, oesophageal lining

18

Example of keratinised stratified squamous epithelium

Skin on the palm of hands or soles of feet

19

What is Simple diffusion?

Net movement of chemicals from regions of a high concentration to regions of a low concentration, until they are distributed

20

What is Facilitated diffusion?

Plasma membrane integral carriers allow passage through protein channels

21

What is Osmosis?

Water or solvent chemicals move from regions of a high concentration of water or solvent chemicals through a selectively permeable membrane

22

What is filtration?

Hydrostatic pressure forces water and small chemicals through selectively permeable membranes from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure

23

What is active transport?

Plasma membrane protein carriers transport ions, chemicals from regions of a low concentration to regions of a high concentration

24

What is Exocytosis?

Cytoplasmic vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane and expel particles from the cell

25

What is Endocytosis?

Membrane-bound vesicles enclose large chemicals, take them into the cytoplasm, and release them

26

What are 3 types of Endocytosis?

Phagocytosis
Pinocytosis
Receptor-mediated endocytosis

27

What is Phagocytosis?

'Cell eating'. Ingesting of solid particles. Forms phagosomes

28

What is Pinocytosis?

'Cell drinking'. Ingestion of fluid droplets and their dissolved substances. Pinosomes release contents into cytoplasm

29

What is Receptor-mediated endocytosis?

Specific plasma membrane receptors bind with chemicals, forming ligands, and take them into the cell's cytoplasm via endosomes

30

Why is particle size important in relation to cell membrane permeability?

Many small molecules can pass freely through membrane whereas larger ones have difficulty and may stay in interstitial or intracellular fluid

31

What are pores in the cell membrane?

Channels that permit specific substances to move in and out of the cell

32

What is the purpose of a pump in relation to the cell membrane?

It imports or exports specific substances eg ions into and out of the cell

33

What substances make up the cell membrane?

Phospholipid bi-layer with proteins
sugars
lipid cholesterol

34

Describe the structure of phospholipid molecules including electrical charges (tip: water loving/hating)

Electrically charged (polar) hydrophilic head
Non-electrically charged (non-polar) hydrophobic tail

35

What is the importance of the water hating central lining of the plasma membrane?

It makes interior of the plasma membrane relatively impermeable to most water soluble molecules

36

What effect does cholesterol have on the plasma membrane?

Stabilizing effect
Helps keep it fluid

37

What substance forms pores in the plasma membrane?

Protein clusters

38

Why is the cell surface sticky?

Presence of Glycoproteins

39

Are Glycoproteins present on the intracellular or extracellular space?

Extra-cellular

40

List functions of glycoproteins

Determine blood type
Receptors for certain bacteria, virus or toxins to bind to
Role in cell to cell interactions

41

List different types of membrane junctions

Tight Junctions
Desmosomes
Gap Junctions

42

What is a tight junction?

Membrane junction
Form leakproof sheets
Adjacent plasma membranes fuse like a zipper
Small intestine

43

What is a desmosome?

Membrane Junction
Anchor
Prevent cells being pulled apart
Skin cells

44

What is a Gap Junction?

Membrane Junction
Communication
Chemical molecules can pass through them from one cell to another
Heart and between Embryonic cells

45

Are mitochondrial walls composed of a single or double membrane?

Double

46

List the different types of Simple Epithelium

Simple Squamous
Simple Cuboidal
Simple Columnar
Pseudostratified Columnar

47

List the different types of Stratified Epithelium

Stratified Squamous
Stratified Cuboidal
Stratified Columnar

48

Oesophagus, mouth and outer skin are all examples of what type of epithelium

Stratified Squamous Epithelium

49

Ducts of large glands are examples of what 2 types of epithelium

Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium
Stratified Columnar Epithelium

50

Which type of epithelium lines the urinary bladder, ureters and urethra

Transitional Epithelium

51

What is special about transitional epithelium

Cells slide past each other & change shape
Allows for Stretch