Ch 16: Social Psychology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 16: Social Psychology Deck (37):

Social Psychology

How you think, feel, and behave in social situations


Fundamental Attribution Error

When people do things to you (bad), you blame it on their personality; but when you do something to others, you blame it on the situation.

Internal vs External disposition factors


Hawthorne Effect

If you know someone is watching you, your performance goes up


Chameleon Effect

Blending in, adapting to what is going on around you

e.g. dancing, cloths


Mere Exposure Effect

The more you are exposed to something, the more you like it


Frustration/Aggression Principle

frustration leads to aggression


What causes Friendship?

3 Things
1) Proximity - how close you are to others in general
- e.g. work place, school
2) Attractiveness
3) Similarity - need to have things in common


Social Facilitation

If others are watching you, you give a stronger response on simple tasks

e.g. How fast do you leave an intersection?


Social Loafting

If you are working together in a big group on a common goal, then your effort may decrease
e.g. tug of war


Group Polarization

The enhancement of the group's ideas after discussion

The group's ideas get pulled to one side


Group think

even if you think you know the answer, you will go with the group's view


Asch Study


Asch Study

Deals with conformity

people tend to answer wrong even though they know their wrong just because the group thinks the wrong answer is correct


Kitty Genovese Case

(1964) Queens, NY

Bystander effect

Young girl raped and killed near apartment building, noone called the police because they thought other people already had


Bystander Effect

If you think others are around, then you are less likely to help

Kitty Genovese Case


Foot in the Door Phenomenon

Doing something small first will make it easier to do something big later


*Cognitive Dissonance

You catch yourself doing something you don't believe in and you fit your thoughts with your actions

Change the way you think


Social Trap

Self interest leads to trouble

revenge can lead to trouble - accidentally mess with wrong people


Stanly Milgram Study

on Obedience to Authority

(1963) at Yale

-created false ad advertising a "Learning & Memory Experiment"
-told subject they were a "Teacher" and another subject was a "Learner"
-"Learner" was actually a confederate
-Teacher asked Learner questions and for each wrong answer, an electrical shock was given to the Learner
-no shock was actually given
-the more questions the Learner got wrong, the higher the voltage the shock was
-65% of Teachers went all the way to the highest shock voltage "XXX".
-throughout the experiment, the Learner shouted in pain and asked to stop.

***the only real shock given was to the Teacher at the beginning to prove the shocks were real


Tit for Tat

opposing sides will stop hurting you because it's actually hurting them

when you are attacked, you retaliate every time



Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension Reduction

most effective strategy for increasing trust

do something small, but nice for enemy
then wait for enemy to respond with something nice
repeat with increase in the niceness of the deed


Social Exchange Theory

We weigh the cost of doing something
look for benefits

In economic terms - cost/benefit


Just World Phenomenon

blame the victim


Muzafer Sherif

Sherif Study on Conflict Resolution

-split 22 young boys into 2 groups
-Rattlers vs Eagles
-said the 2 groups were against eachother for a prize
-boys stuck with their own group even when given the chance to mingle
-got the 2 groups to work together even after they hated eachother
-work towards a common goal

Superordinate Goals


Stanford Prison Experiment


-Male grad students role playing a prison as prisoners and guards for 2 weeks
-Does role playing affect attitudes?
-the students started acting like real prisoners and guards
-experiment had to be cancelled after 6 days due to brutality of the guards on the prisoners




Loss of self-awareness, self-restraint


Attribution Theory

The theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition


Central Route to Persuasion

occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts


Peripheral Route to Persuasion

occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness


Normative Social Influence

influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval

Why we clap when others clap, eat as others eat, believe as others believe, even see what others see.
To avoid rejection or to gain social approval


Informational Social Influence

influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality.



"Us" - people with whom we share a common identity\

a social group



"Them" - those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup

people outside of the social group


Ingroup Bias

the tendency to favor our own group


Other-Race Effect

the tendency to recall faces of one's own race more accurately than faces of other races

also called "cross-race effect" and "own-race bias"


Reciprocity Norm

an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them


Social-Responsibility Norm

an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them


Superordinate Goals

shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation