Ch 16: Social Psychology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 16: Social Psychology Deck (37):
1

Social Psychology

How you think, feel, and behave in social situations

2

Fundamental Attribution Error

When people do things to you (bad), you blame it on their personality; but when you do something to others, you blame it on the situation.

Internal vs External disposition factors

3

Hawthorne Effect

If you know someone is watching you, your performance goes up

4

Chameleon Effect

Blending in, adapting to what is going on around you

e.g. dancing, cloths

5

Mere Exposure Effect

The more you are exposed to something, the more you like it

6

Frustration/Aggression Principle

frustration leads to aggression

7

What causes Friendship?

3 Things
1) Proximity - how close you are to others in general
- e.g. work place, school
2) Attractiveness
3) Similarity - need to have things in common

8

Social Facilitation

If others are watching you, you give a stronger response on simple tasks

e.g. How fast do you leave an intersection?

9

Social Loafting

If you are working together in a big group on a common goal, then your effort may decrease
e.g. tug of war

10

Group Polarization

The enhancement of the group's ideas after discussion

The group's ideas get pulled to one side

11

Group think

even if you think you know the answer, you will go with the group's view

conformity

Asch Study

12

Asch Study

Deals with conformity

people tend to answer wrong even though they know their wrong just because the group thinks the wrong answer is correct

13

Kitty Genovese Case

(1964) Queens, NY

Bystander effect

Young girl raped and killed near apartment building, noone called the police because they thought other people already had

14

Bystander Effect

If you think others are around, then you are less likely to help

Kitty Genovese Case

15

Foot in the Door Phenomenon

Doing something small first will make it easier to do something big later

16

*Cognitive Dissonance

You catch yourself doing something you don't believe in and you fit your thoughts with your actions

Change the way you think

17

Social Trap

Self interest leads to trouble

revenge can lead to trouble - accidentally mess with wrong people

18

Stanly Milgram Study

on Obedience to Authority

(1963) at Yale

-created false ad advertising a "Learning & Memory Experiment"
-told subject they were a "Teacher" and another subject was a "Learner"
-"Learner" was actually a confederate
-Teacher asked Learner questions and for each wrong answer, an electrical shock was given to the Learner
-no shock was actually given
-the more questions the Learner got wrong, the higher the voltage the shock was
-65% of Teachers went all the way to the highest shock voltage "XXX".
-throughout the experiment, the Learner shouted in pain and asked to stop.

***the only real shock given was to the Teacher at the beginning to prove the shocks were real

19

Tit for Tat

opposing sides will stop hurting you because it's actually hurting them

when you are attacked, you retaliate every time

20

G.R.I.T.

Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension Reduction

most effective strategy for increasing trust

do something small, but nice for enemy
then wait for enemy to respond with something nice
repeat with increase in the niceness of the deed

21

Social Exchange Theory

We weigh the cost of doing something
look for benefits

In economic terms - cost/benefit

22

Just World Phenomenon

blame the victim

23

Muzafer Sherif

Sherif Study on Conflict Resolution

-split 22 young boys into 2 groups
-Rattlers vs Eagles
-said the 2 groups were against eachother for a prize
-boys stuck with their own group even when given the chance to mingle
-got the 2 groups to work together even after they hated eachother
-work towards a common goal

Superordinate Goals

24

Stanford Prison Experiment

Zimbardo

-Male grad students role playing a prison as prisoners and guards for 2 weeks
-Does role playing affect attitudes?
-the students started acting like real prisoners and guards
-experiment had to be cancelled after 6 days due to brutality of the guards on the prisoners

Deindividuation

25

Deindividuation

Loss of self-awareness, self-restraint

26

Attribution Theory

The theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition

27

Central Route to Persuasion

occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts

28

Peripheral Route to Persuasion

occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness

29

Normative Social Influence

influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval

Why we clap when others clap, eat as others eat, believe as others believe, even see what others see.
To avoid rejection or to gain social approval

30

Informational Social Influence

influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality.

31

Ingroup

"Us" - people with whom we share a common identity\

a social group

32

Outgroup

"Them" - those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup

people outside of the social group

33

Ingroup Bias

the tendency to favor our own group

34

Other-Race Effect

the tendency to recall faces of one's own race more accurately than faces of other races

also called "cross-race effect" and "own-race bias"

35

Reciprocity Norm

an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them

36

Social-Responsibility Norm

an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them

37

Superordinate Goals

shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation