Ch 7: Learning Flashcards Preview

Psychology > Ch 7: Learning > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 7: Learning Deck (29):
1

Classical Conditioning

  • Learning by association
  • Pavlov's Dog
  • John B. Watson + Little Albert

 

  • UCS(natural stimulus) -> UCR
  • UCS + CS -> UCR
    • CS(not natural stimulus) -> CR

2

Acquisition

in Classical Conditioning, the 1st time a CS causes a CR

3

Generalization

mix up 2 different (CS)s

e.g. Pavlov's dog salavates when it hears the keys instead of the bell

4

Discrimination

only react with only one CS

Subject knows the exact CS

5

Extinction

CS does not produce CR anymore

6

Spontaneous Recovery

after extenction, subject produces the CR to see what happnes

7

John B. Watson

Little Albert experiment

Behaviorist

8

Types of Classical Conditioning - (4)

  1. trace
  2. simultaneous
  3. *delayed
  4. backward

  1. Trace - CS before + turn off
  2. Simultaneous - turn off CS during
  3. Delayed - keep CS on during
  4. Backward​ - turn CS on after

9

Systematic Desensitization

associate happy things with bad things - removes fear of bad thing

10

Operant Conditioning

  • learning by consequence
  • Edward Thorndike and B.F. Skinner

11

Law of Effect - Edward Thorndike

rewarded bejavior is likely to return

 

rewards make people repeat behaviors

12

B.F. Skinner

studied Operant Conditioning and created the Skinner Box

13

Reinforcers - (2)

  1. Primary/Secondary
    1. Primary - satisfying in themselves
      1. can use the reinforcer at that moment
      2. e.g. food
    2. Secondary​ - no immediate value
      1. e.g. money
  2. Positive/Negative
    1. Positive - increase behavior by presenting something after a response
    2. Negative - not a punishment
      1. increase behavior by removing something bad that is already there
        1. e.g. wearing your seatbelt to stop annoying beep

14

Skinner Box

teaches animals by shaping/Successive Approximations - a step by step process

 

uses Operant Conditioning

15

Ratio Schedules

you must do the correct thing to get the reinforcer

16

Fixed Ratio

reinforcer is given after a certain amount is done

 

behavior - 4 : reinforcer - 1

e.g. working on a salary

17

Variable Ratio

you know it works, but number of reinforcers are random

 

e.g. gambling

18

Interval Schedules

time based reinforcement schedules

19

Fixed Interval Schedule

follows the clock

 

a reinforcement schedule

20

Variable Interval Schedule

random time intervals

 

a reinforcement schedule

21

Extrinsic Motivation

doing something for a reward

 

do it to get something

22

Intrinsic Motivation

do something just because you want to do it - no reward

23

Overjustification Effect

giving rewards to someone for something they like doing

 

causes Intrinsic Motivation to die

24

Observational Learning

*Albert Bandura

learning by observing others

 

Bobo doll experiment

"Monkey see Monkey do"

25

Social Learning Theory

learn social behavior by observing others

26

Latent vs Insight Learning

  • Latent - hidden learning - learning without realizing
  • Insight​ - occurs in a flash - learn in a single instant

27

Associative Learning

learning that certain events occur together

28

Respondent Behavior

behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus

29

Cognitive Map

a mental representation of the layout of one's environment