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Flashcards in Prologue Deck (36):
1

Psychology

The scientific study of behavior and mental process

Must have 1 of these:
1) Natural Observation
2) Survey
3) Case Study
4) Correlation Study
5) Experimental Research -> most effective

2

Behaviorist

Psychologists that study only things they can see

3

Cognitave

Thinking

4

Rods

part of the eye that carries black and white colors to the brain
in the outer parts of the eye

5

Cones

part of the eye that carries color to the brain
in the inner parts of eye

2 types:
1) Red Green
2) Blue Yellow

6

After Image Effect

-Brain creates a new color by using opponent colors
-a mistake
-cones or rods burn out so eye produces the opposite color

7

Opponent processes of the Human Body

If one thing happens in extreme (in the body), shortly after the opposite happens

e.g. -drinking too much alcohol then hang over
-sugar rush then crashing

8

Homeostasis

body wants to balance

opponent process of the human body

9

Trephing

(2000 BCE)
Putting holes into people's heads

used for draining out tumors

10

Thinking about the mind - Greeks

(350 BCE)

Plato - Nature, mind continues after death
Aristotle - Nurture, mind dies with body
Socrates - Introspection

11

Introspection

You think about your own body

guessing

(350 BCE) - Socrates

12

Phrenology

(1600)
Study bumps on heads to predict occupation
all wrong

13

John Locke

(1700's)

Mind is blank at birth - Nurture
Empiricism

14

Empiricism

To study the mind, record observations

keep data

15

Wilhem Wundt

(1879)

Father of Psychology
Studied reaction time
Psycho/Physics

16

Psycho/Physics

Dropping a ball from a ladder and timing how long it takes for people to react to the ball hitting the ground

17

Edward Titchner

(Early 1900's)

-Teacher at Cornell
-Structuralism
-Task of psychology is to identify parts of the brain you're using

18

Structuralism

parts of the body do different things
use introspection

19

William James

(Early 1900's)

Teacher at Harvard
Functionalism

wrote Principles of Psychology - still used today

20

Functionalism

outside world controls body
still around today
turns into Behaviorism

21

Stanly Hall

(Early 1900's)

Started A.P.A - American Psychological Association

22

Mary Whiton Calkins

(1905)

1st Female president of A.P.A

23

John B. Watson and BF Skinner

Behaviorism

used rewards and punishments to condition people

24

Ken Clark

(1954)

Doll Study
-took black and white dolls around US and talked to children
-asked questions about which doll was better
-subjects always picked the white doll

25

Freud

(1960)

Psychoanalytic Theory

26

Psychoanalytic Theory/Psychodynamic Theory

unconscious controls you

unconscious - what you can access in your mind

27

Neuroscience

blood and body chemistry drive you to be the way you are

28

Evolutionary

You are like your ancestors because it worked for them

survival of the fittest

29

Behavior Genetics

Genes program you

30

Psychodynamics

unconscious causes it

31

Behaviorial

Environment causes it

32

*Cognitive

You do things because you thought about it

33

Social Cultural

you act a certain way because of your culture

34

Stability vs Change
(Continuity) vs (Discontinuity)

personality doesn't change throughout life

change personality changes one or more times

35

Human rationality vs Human irrationality

Homosapian - wise human

36

Nature vs Nurture

Born the way you are or taught to act a certain way

ongoing debate