Ch 2: The Biology of Mind Flashcards Preview

Psychology > Ch 2: The Biology of Mind > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 2: The Biology of Mind Deck (50):
1

Synaptic Gap

The gap between neurons in a neuron chain

2

Neurons

(drawing)

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3

Dendrites

  • Part of Neuron
  • Pick up stimulation from outside or inside of body

4

Glial Cells

Feed the neuron

5

Resting Potential

(+)ions on the outside, (-)ions on the inside

6

Action Potential

Electrical charge down the Axon to the Neurotransmitters

7

Neurotransmitters

  • 6 types
  • come out of Neuron and touch the dendrite of the next neuron to stimulate it

8

Myelin Sheath

  • Protects the axon
  • If gone, the electricity does't get to the neurotransmitters

 

  • MS - multiple sclorosis - destruction of the myelin sheath

9

Refractory Period

(+)ions shoot out of neuron to wait to comeback in

10

All or None

  • neurons release the same amout of electricity no matter the size of the stimulus
  • If there is a big stimulus, neurons release electricity more often

11

Reuptake

neurotransmitters coming back into the neuron

12

Plasticity

  • Neurotransmitters are eaten then things are released that other neurons are attracted to
  • other neuron chains take over dead neuron's jobs

13

Neural Highway

neuron highway to the brain

 

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14

4 Types of Neurons

1) Sensory

2) Interneurons

3) Motor

4) Reflex

  1. Sensory - (afferent) - goes through the spinal chord
    • takes info to the brain
  2. Interneurons - neurons in spinal chord and brain
  3. Motor - (efferent) - goes to body from brain
    • sends info to body to react to something
  4. Reflex - goes to spinal chord and straight back

15

Acetylcholine

A Neurotransmitter

  • (ACH)
  • most abundant and most used
  • used for Movement and memory

16

Dopamine

A Neurotransmitter

  • Attention and emotions
  • too much = schizophrenia
  • too little = parkinsons
  • cocane blocks reuptake of Dopamine

17

Serotonin

A Neurotransmitter

  • mood and sleep
  • not enough = depression

18

Norepinephrine

A Neurotransmitter

  • alertness and rousal
  • not enough = depression

19

Endorphines

A Neurotransmitter

  • stop pain
  • *Inhibitory*
  • blocks pain messages

20

GABA

A Neurotransmitter

  • (Gammo Amino Butric Acid)
  • stops eating signals to brain
  • makes you think you're full

21

Lesion

  • brain damage
  • black spots on brain

22

Electroencephalogram

(EEG)

  • Measures electricity in brain
  • measures the neurons firing
  • checks for concussions

23

Computerized Axial Tomography

(CAT Scan)

  • series of X-Rays
  • can see tissue

24

Magnetic Resonance Imagry

(fMRI)

  • Can see soft tissue
  • shows path of fluid in part of body
    • shows if tissue is torn or not

25

Positron Emmission Tomography

(PET Scan)

  • Shows brain activity location
  • after drinking Radioactive Glucse in sugar water

26

Brain Stem

  • Oldest part of the brain
  • includes Medula, RAS, and Thalamus

 

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27

Medula

Sends messages to Lungs and Heart

28

Reticular Activating System

(RAS)

  • Neurons go through it
  • monitors neurons coming to the brain
  • causes you to be alert or sllepy
  • Alcohol numbs RAS

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29

Thalamus

Sends neurons to where they need to be

 

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30

Cerebellum

Controls movement and balance

 

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31

Hippocampus

stores new memories

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32

Amygdala

handles Aggression and Fear

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33

Hypothalamus

  • Pleasure center
  • sex, arousal, hunger, thirst
  • controls the pituary gland

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34

Pitutary gland

  • "The Master Gland"
  • controls endocrine system - hormone system

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35

Limbic System

the top of the brain

36

Cerebral Cortex

Surface of brain - Wrinkled Surface

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37

Frontal Lobe

Personality, appropriate emotions

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38

Phineas Gage

  • (1848)
  • metal spike goes through forntal lobe
  • went from very nice to very mean
  • completely changed his personality

39

Parietal Lobe

math and logic

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40

Temporal Lobe

  • controls ears
  • ears are processed in both sides of the brain at the same time

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41

Occipital Lobe

Vision

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42

Motor Cortex Strip

  • For touching
  • In the Frontal Lobe
  • movement

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43

Sensory Cortex Strip

  • Touching
  • sensations
  • in the Prietal Lobe

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44

Left vs Right Hemisphere

Left

  • Abstract Throught
  • Language
  • Speech
  • Numbers and Math

Right

  • Creativity
  • Imagination
  • Passion
  • Music and Art

45

Broca's Area

Pronounce words

Expressive Speach

46

Wernicke's Area

understand other's words

47

Angslar Gyros

Read written words out loud

48

Central Nervous System

Nerves in Brain & Spinal Chord

49

Peripheral Nervous System

  1. Somatic - Goingout from spinal chord to muscles
  2. Autonomic - sends messages to organs
    1. Sympathetic - fight or flight
    2. Parasympathetic - rest or calming

50

Phantom Limb System

You recieve sensations from a lost limb