Ch 9: Language and Thinking Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 9: Language and Thinking Deck (17):
1

Concepts

mental goupings of similar items

 

kept in schemas

 

e.g.chair - many types of chairs but use basic chair as prototype

2

Prototype

the best example of a concept

the simpliest form of a concept

3

Solving Problems - 4

  1. Trial and Error
  2. *Algorithim
  3. *Heuristics
  4. Insight

  1. Trial and Error - doing something repeatidly
    1. Problem: solution may never happen
  2. *Algorithim - a logical rule
    1. go step by step
    2. Guaranteed correct
    3. Problem: it's slow
  3. *Heuristics - "Rule of thumb"
    1. 2 kinds
    2. not guaranteed but fast
  4. Insight - idea just comes to you
    1. could be days later

4

Heuristics

Representativeness Heuristics

​Availability Heuristics

  • Representativeness Heuristics - how well something matches your prototype
    • use prototypes to solve a problem
  • ​Availability Heuristics - you use what's available in your current memory

5

Confirmation Bias

you search for info that only confirms your perspective

6

Functional Fixedness

you think something works only one way

 

e.g. replacing a screwdriver with a dime

7

Fixation

thinking inside the box

8

Overconfidence

overestimating the accuracy of their knowledge

9

Framing

people will be influenced by the way we present an issue

 

e.g. 10%die vs 90%live

10

Belief Perserverance

we cling to our bleiefs, even if we get other evidence

 

e.g. what type of firefighters are best? - taking risks or playing it safe

11

Language - needs 3 things

  1. Phonemes
  2. Morphems
  3. Grammer

  1. Phonemes - smallest unit fo sound
    1. e.g. B, T, C, A
    2. Chat - 3 phonemes
  2. Morphems - smalles unit of sound that has meaning
    1. e.g. pre, ed
  3. Grammer - 2 parts
    1. Sematics - gives meaning to words
    2. Syntax - rules of the language

12

Language Development - 4 Stages

  1. Babbling Stage
  2. One Word Stage
  3. Two Word Stage
  4. Rapid Development

  1. Babbling Stage - (3-4 months)
    1. babies push air through their lungs and manipulate it with their tongue
    2. makes a "cooing" sound
  2. One Word Stage - (1 year)
    1.  could mean 1 sentence
    2. e.g. "go", "up"
  3. Two Word Stage - (2 years)
    1. telegraph speach
    2. e.g. "Big Dog"
  4. Rapid Development​ - speak in full sentences

13

Noam Chomsky

Psycholinguistic Theory

born with L.A.D - Language Acquisition Device - prewired spot that deals with language

14

B.F. Skinner

Behaviorism Theory

rewards and conditioning develop language

15

Cognitive Language Theory

Children just take an active role

 

motivated and excided to find out what's going on

16

Benjamin Worf

Linguistic Determination Theory

language determines how you see the world

the more words you know, the more indepth you can see the world

17

Washoe and Lana

  • Washoe learned sign language
  • Lana learned Yerkish - artificial language with a keyboard of pictures