Ch 6: Sensation and Perception Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 6: Sensation and Perception Deck (59):
1

Sensation

detect physical energy

2

Perception

give things meaning

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Senses - (7)

  1. Vision
  2. Hearing
  3. Taste
  4. Touch
  5. Smell
  6. Vestibular
  7. Kinesthesis

4

Bottom Up Processing

begin with senses and move up to the brain

 

Doesn't tell you what you're sensing

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Top Down Processing

Higher level thinking is used

 

use all "experiences" and "causes" that you know to figure something out

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Absolute Threshold

the minimum stimulation needed to detect a stimulus 50% of the time

 

how much of a stimulation is needed to detect a stimulus

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Signal Detection Theory

  • goes against Absolute Threshold
  • senses heighten when in extreeme cases or special circumstances
  • brain senses better, senses do not get better
  • e.g. war

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Subliminal

below the Absolute Threshold

 

can't sense it

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Subliminal Messages

  • messages that you can't sense
  • e.g. a picture flashes before your eyes that you can't see
  • no evidence it can make you do something big

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Weber's Law

the larger or stronger the stimulus, then you need an even stronger one to notice a difference

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Sensory Adaptation

your senses will adapt to repeated new stimulations from being used to it

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Visual Capture

the eye is the most dominant sense

capturing an image

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Cornea

transparent shield that protects the eye

A image thumb
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Iris

color of the eye

 

regulates the pupil

A image thumb
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Pupil

opening in the eye

A image thumb
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*Lens

Focuses incoming light to fovea - Accomodation

A image thumb
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Fovea

the correct part where light should go in the eye

 

gives the best vision

 

focal point of the eye

A image thumb
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Bipolar cells and Ganglean Cells

Sends info to the brain

A image thumb
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Transduction

converts outside energy into a neural message

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Nearsightedness

can't see far away, but can see up close

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Farsightedness

can't see close up, but can see far away

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Cataract

cloudy film covers lens

 

old age

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Astigmatism

"slime" on cornea - bump on cornea

 

requires lasic surgery

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Young, Helmholtz Trichomatic Theory

you have 3 different cones

  1. Red
  2. Green
  3. Blue

when the cones cross, you get different colors

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Opponent Process Theory of Color

3 cones, but each has an opponent color

  1. Red - Green
  2. Blue - Yellow
  3. White - Black

Explains After-Image Effect

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Color Deficent

Red/Green defficent - Dichromatic - most common

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*Color Constancy

Brain remembers what certain colors things should be and tries to make you happy

 

glancing at something, that thing can look a different color because that's what you think it should be

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Olfaction

Smell

 

route:

nasal receptors -> Olfactory Nerve -> Olfactory Bulb -> memory bank

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Anosmia

loss of smell

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Gustatory

Taste

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taste buds

Gustatory receptors

can be burned, but come back in 7-14 days

alcohol and smoking = lose sensivity

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5 basic tastes

  1. Sour
  2. Salty
  3. Sweet
  4. Bitter
  5. *UMAMI - meat taste

 

*spicy is not a taste

*lips have largest area of sensory neurons in body per inch

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Audition

Hearing

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Decibles

measuring unit for sound

 

140 - Rock Band

60-Normal Conversation

20-Whisper

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Tymphanic Membrane

(ear drum)

amplfies sound to keep it going through ear

 

if punctured - hearing loss - conduction deafness - will heal

A image thumb
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Eustachin Tube

releaves pressure when swallowing

 

leads to throat

A image thumb
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Hammer, Iacas, Stirup

(Madeus, Anvil, Stapes)

bones that help move sound by vibrating

A image thumb
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Cilia

  • Hairs on the cochlea
  • each attached to a nerve
  • hears sound when ear fluid gets it wet
  • louder sounds = more cilia stimulated

A image thumb
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Auditory Nerve

nerve from cilia to brain

 

goes to right and left sides at the same time

A image thumb
40

Vestibular Sense

Balance Sense

 

controlled by semi-circle canals

A image thumb
41

Place Theory

Theory about hearing different pitches

certain place in cochlea is stimulated

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Frequency Theory

Theory about hearing different pitches

 

certain # of cilia need to go down

 

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Kinesthesis Sense

knowing where your body parts are pinting

 

in muscles, joints, and tendons

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Sensory Restriction

taking a day off

 

reducing the amount of stimulus coming in

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Deprivation

no stimulus for days

 

makes people go crazy

46

Ways to stop pain #1

Gate Theory

a bucket of ice water down back - causes too much stimuli to jam other signals

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Ways to stop pain #2

Distract Mind

when having a baby, mother takes a course to help stop pain

 

distracts the mind from the pain

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Ways to stop pain #3

Endorphins

get body to release endorphines - natural pain killers

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Ways to stop pain #4

Drugs

mimic endorphines

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McGurk Effect

using more than one sense at a time - Sensory Interaction

 

a blending of 2 senses - hear and see something different

51

Influences on Perception - (4)

  1. Experiences
  2. Needs
  3. Moods
  4. *Collective Perception

  1. Experience - past experiences give you wrong answers
    1. e.g. red, white, and ? - most say "blue" because of USA colors
  2. Needs - when you need something, you tend to see it when it's not there
    1. e.g. hungry, far away yellow curved track could look like McDonald's sign
  3. Moods - different moods change how you see or feel things
    1. e.g. get into an argument before an event - event seems worse than it really is
  4. Collective Perception - (group think)
    1. group of people think one way - make others think that same way

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Selective Attention

  • Multi-tasking
  • can do 2 things, but can only really focus on 1
  • e.g. cell phone experiment - people on cell phones miss 1/2 of street signs

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Change Blindness

when focusing on one thing, we can change your environment and you will not notice

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Organization - Gestalt

  • Brain likes to see the whole
  • organizes using 4 ways
  1. Proximity
  2. Similarity
  3. Continuity
  4. Connectedness
  5. Closure

55

Auto Kinetic Effect

in dark, when you stare at a single light, it will appear to move when it actually is standing still

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Phi Phenomenon

Lights that blink will still look on - moving circle of dots

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Stroboscopic Motion

if you flip, in rapid progression, a series of still pics, they will move

 

e.g. flip bok, stop motion

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Visual Cliff

lab tool to test depth perception

 

table with clear glass on half of it

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Perception - (2)

  1. Binocular Cues
    1. Retnal Disparity
    2. Convergence
  2. Monocular Cue
    1. interposition
    2. light+shadow
    3. linear perspective
    4. relative clarity
    5. relative height
    6. motion parallox
    7. relative size
    8. texture gradient

  1. Binocular Cues - using 2 eyes to percieve depth
    1. Retnal Disparity - images come into each eye's retna in different places
    2. Convergence - both eyes turn in when something is close
  2. Monocular Cues - using one eye to percieve depth
    1. interposition - closer obj. blocks others
    2. light+shadow - closer obj. are brighter(reflect more)
    3. linear perspective - parallel lines come together far away
      1. ponzo effect
    4. relative clarity - hazy (fog) obj. looks farther away
    5. relative height - taller obj. looks farther away
    6. motion parallox - as you go forward, fixed obj. look like they're going backward
    7. relative size - larger obj. look closer if 2 obj. are the same size
    8. texture gradient - closer obj. are in more detail