Passage of materials through the walls of the small intestine into the bloodstream.
Small building blocks of proteins (like links in a chain), released when proteins are digested.
Enzyme (-ase) secreted by the pancreas and salivary glands to digest starch (amyl/o).
Terminal end or opening of the digestive tract to the outside of the body.
Blind pouch hanging from the cecum (in the right lower quadrant [RLQ]). It literally means hanging (pend/o) onto (ap-, which is a form of ad-).
Digestive juice made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It breaks up (emulsifies) large fat globules. Bile originally was called gall (Latin bilis, meaning gall or anger), probably because it has a bitter taste. It is composed of bile pigments (colored materials), cholesterol, and bile salts.
Pigment released by the liver in bile.
Pointed, dog-like teeth (canine means pertaining to dog) next to the incisors. Also called cuspids or eyeteeth.
First park of the large intestine.
Portion of the large intestine consisting of the ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid segments.
common bile duct
Carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum. Also called the choledochus.
Elimination of feces from the digestive tract through the anus.
Primary material found in teeth. It is covered by the enamel in the crown and a protective layer of cementum in the root.
Breakdown of complex foods to simpler forms.
First part of the small intestine. Duo = 2, den = 10; the duodenum measures 12 inches long.
Act of removal of materials from the body; in the digestive system, the removal of indigestible materials as feces.
Physical process of breaking up large fat globules into smaller globules, thereby increasing the surface area that enzymes can use to digest the fat.
Hard, outermost layer of a tooth.
Chemical that speeds up a reaction between substances. Digestive enzymes break down complex foods to simpler substances. Enzymes are given names that end in -ase.
Tube connecting the throat to the stomach. Eso- means inward; phag/o means swallowing.
Substances produced when fats are digested. Fatty acids are a category of lipids.
Solid wastes; stool.
Small sac under the liver; stores bile.
Starch; glucose is stored in the form of glycogen in liver cells.
Substance produced in the stomach; necessary for digestion of food.
Third part of the small intestine; from the Greek eilos, meaning twisted. When the abdomen was viewed at autopsy, the intesine appeared twisted, and the ileum often was an area of obstruction.
Any one of four front teeth in the dental arch.
Hormone produced by the endocrine cells of the pancreas. It transports sugar from the blood into cells and stimulates glycogen formation by the liver.
Second part of the small intestine. The Latin jejunus means empty; this part of the intestine was always empty when a body was examined after death.
Pancreatic enzyme necessary to digest fats.
Large organ located in the RUQ of the abdomen. The liver secretes bile; stores sugar, iron, and vitamins; produces blood proteins; destroys worn-out red blood cells; and filters out toxins. The normal adult liver weighs about 2.5-3lbs.
lower esophagela sphincter (LES)
Ring of muscles between the esophagus and the stomach. Also called cardiac sphincter.
Sixth, seventh, and eight teeth from the middle on either side of the dental arch. Premolar teeth are the fourth and fifth teeth, before the molars.
Roof of the mouth. The hard palate lies anterior to the soft palate and is supported by the upper jawbone (maxilla). The soft palate is the posterior fleshy part between the mouth and the throat.
Organ behind the stomach; produces insulin (for transport of sugar into cells) and enzymes (for digestion of foods).
papillae (singular: papilla)
Small projections on the tongue. A papilla is a nipple-like elevation.
Salivary gland within the cheek, just anterior to the ear. Note the literal meaning of parotid (par- = near; ot/o = ear).
Rhythmic contractions of the tubular organs. In the gastrointestinal tract, peristalsis moves the contents through at different rates: stomach, 0.5 to 2 hours; small intestine, 2 to 6 hours; and colon, 6 to 72 hours. Peri- means surrounding; -stalsis is constriction.
Throat, the common passageway for food from the mouth and for air from the nose.
Large vein bringing blood to the liver from the intestines.
Enzyme that digest protein.
Soft tissue within a tooth, containing nerves and blood vessels.
Ring of muscle at the end of the stomach, near the duodenum. From the Greek pyloros, meaning gatekeeper. It is normally closed, but opens when a wave of peristalsis passes over it.
Distal region of the stomach, opening to the duodenum.
Last section of the large intestine, connecting the end of the colon and the anus.
Ridges on the hard palate and the wall of the stomach.
Digestive juice produced by salivary glands. Saliva contains the enzyme amylase, which begins the digestion of starch to sugar.
Parotid, sublingual, and submandibular glands.
Fourth and last, S-shaped segment of the colon, just before the rectum; empties into the rectum.
Circular ring of muscle that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening.
Muscular organ that receives food from the esophagus. The stomach's parts are fundus (proximal section, body (middle section), and antrum (distal section).
Fat molecules composed of three parts fatty acids and one part glycerol. Triglycerides (fats) are a subgroup of lipids. Another type of lipid is cholesterol.
Soft tissue hanging from the middle of the soft palate. The Latin uva means bunch of grapes.
villi (singular: villus)
Microscopic projections in the wall of the small intestine that absorb nutrients into the bloodstream.