Ch 5 - Digestive System Vocab Flashcards Preview

Biomedical Terminology > Ch 5 - Digestive System Vocab > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 5 - Digestive System Vocab Deck (58):
1

absorption

Passage of materials through the walls of the small intestine into the bloodstream.

2

amino acids

Small building blocks of proteins (like links in a chain), released when proteins are digested.

3

amylase

Enzyme (-ase) secreted by the pancreas and salivary glands to digest starch (amyl/o).

4

anus

Terminal end or opening of the digestive tract to the outside of the body.

5

appendix

Blind pouch hanging from the cecum (in the right lower quadrant [RLQ]). It literally means hanging (pend/o) onto (ap-, which is a form of ad-).

6

bile

Digestive juice made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It breaks up (emulsifies) large fat globules. Bile originally was called gall (Latin bilis, meaning gall or anger), probably because it has a bitter taste. It is composed of bile pigments (colored materials), cholesterol, and bile salts.

7

bilirubin

Pigment released by the liver in bile.

8

bowel

Intestine.

9

canine teeth

Pointed, dog-like teeth (canine means pertaining to dog) next to the incisors. Also called cuspids or eyeteeth.

10

cecum

First park of the large intestine.

11

colon

Portion of the large intestine consisting of the ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid segments.

12

common bile duct

Carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum. Also called the choledochus.

13

defecation

Elimination of feces from the digestive tract through the anus.

14

deglutition

Swallowing.

15

dentin

Primary material found in teeth. It is covered by the enamel in the crown and a protective layer of cementum in the root.

16

digestion

Breakdown of complex foods to simpler forms.

17

duodenum

First part of the small intestine. Duo = 2, den = 10; the duodenum measures 12 inches long.

18

elimination

Act of removal of materials from the body; in the digestive system, the removal of indigestible materials as feces.

19

emulsification

Physical process of breaking up large fat globules into smaller globules, thereby increasing the surface area that enzymes can use to digest the fat.

20

enamel

Hard, outermost layer of a tooth.

21

enzyme

Chemical that speeds up a reaction between substances. Digestive enzymes break down complex foods to simpler substances. Enzymes are given names that end in -ase.

22

esophagus

Tube connecting the throat to the stomach. Eso- means inward; phag/o means swallowing.

23

fatty acids

Substances produced when fats are digested. Fatty acids are a category of lipids.

24

feces

Solid wastes; stool.

25

gallbladder

Small sac under the liver; stores bile.

26

glucose

Simple sugar.

27

glycogen

Starch; glucose is stored in the form of glycogen in liver cells.

28

hydrochloric acid

Substance produced in the stomach; necessary for digestion of food.

29

ileum

Third part of the small intestine; from the Greek eilos, meaning twisted. When the abdomen was viewed at autopsy, the intesine appeared twisted, and the ileum often was an area of obstruction.

30

incisor

Any one of four front teeth in the dental arch.

31

insulin

Hormone produced by the endocrine cells of the pancreas. It transports sugar from the blood into cells and stimulates glycogen formation by the liver.

32

jejunum

Second part of the small intestine. The Latin jejunus means empty; this part of the intestine was always empty when a body was examined after death.

33

lipase

Pancreatic enzyme necessary to digest fats.

34

liver

Large organ located in the RUQ of the abdomen. The liver secretes bile; stores sugar, iron, and vitamins; produces blood proteins; destroys worn-out red blood cells; and filters out toxins. The normal adult liver weighs about 2.5-3lbs.

35

lower esophagela sphincter (LES)

Ring of muscles between the esophagus and the stomach. Also called cardiac sphincter.

36

mastication

Chewing.

37

molar teeth

Sixth, seventh, and eight teeth from the middle on either side of the dental arch. Premolar teeth are the fourth and fifth teeth, before the molars.

38

palate

Roof of the mouth. The hard palate lies anterior to the soft palate and is supported by the upper jawbone (maxilla). The soft palate is the posterior fleshy part between the mouth and the throat.

39

pancreas

Organ behind the stomach; produces insulin (for transport of sugar into cells) and enzymes (for digestion of foods).

40

papillae (singular: papilla)

Small projections on the tongue. A papilla is a nipple-like elevation.

41

parotid gland

Salivary gland within the cheek, just anterior to the ear. Note the literal meaning of parotid (par- = near; ot/o = ear).

42

peristalsis

Rhythmic contractions of the tubular organs. In the gastrointestinal tract, peristalsis moves the contents through at different rates: stomach, 0.5 to 2 hours; small intestine, 2 to 6 hours; and colon, 6 to 72 hours. Peri- means surrounding; -stalsis is constriction.

43

pharynx

Throat, the common passageway for food from the mouth and for air from the nose.

44

portal vein

Large vein bringing blood to the liver from the intestines.

45

protease

Enzyme that digest protein.

46

pulp

Soft tissue within a tooth, containing nerves and blood vessels.

47

pyloric sphincter

Ring of muscle at the end of the stomach, near the duodenum. From the Greek pyloros, meaning gatekeeper. It is normally closed, but opens when a wave of peristalsis passes over it.

48

pylorus

Distal region of the stomach, opening to the duodenum.

49

rectum

Last section of the large intestine, connecting the end of the colon and the anus.

50

rugae

Ridges on the hard palate and the wall of the stomach.

51

saliva

Digestive juice produced by salivary glands. Saliva contains the enzyme amylase, which begins the digestion of starch to sugar.

52

salivary glands

Parotid, sublingual, and submandibular glands.

53

sigmoid colon

Fourth and last, S-shaped segment of the colon, just before the rectum; empties into the rectum.

54

sphicter

Circular ring of muscle that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening.

55

stomach

Muscular organ that receives food from the esophagus. The stomach's parts are fundus (proximal section, body (middle section), and antrum (distal section).

56

triglycerides

Fat molecules composed of three parts fatty acids and one part glycerol. Triglycerides (fats) are a subgroup of lipids. Another type of lipid is cholesterol.

57

uvula

Soft tissue hanging from the middle of the soft palate. The Latin uva means bunch of grapes.

58

villi (singular: villus)

Microscopic projections in the wall of the small intestine that absorb nutrients into the bloodstream.