Ch 15 - Musculoskeletal System Terminology Flashcards Preview

Biomedical Terminology > Ch 15 - Musculoskeletal System Terminology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 15 - Musculoskeletal System Terminology Deck (73):
1

calc/o,
calci/o

calcium

ex. hypercalcemia - excessive calcium in the blood
ex. decalcification - the process of making less calcium

2

kyph/o

humpback, hunchback (posterior curvature in the thoracic region)

ex. kyphosis - abnormal condition of humpback or hunchback

3

lamin/o

lamina (part of the vertebral arch)

ex. laminectomy - removal of the lamina

4

lord/o

curve, swayback (anterior curvature in the lumbar region)

ex. lordosis - abnormal condition of anterior curvature in the lumbar region

5

lumb/o

loins, lower back

ex. lumbar - p. the lower back
ex. lumbosacral - p. the lower back and sacrum

6

myel/o

bone marrow

ex. myelopoiesis - formation of bone marrow

7

orth/o

straight

ex. orthopedics - physicians who treat bone, joint, and muscle conditions

8

oste/o

bone

ex. osteitis - inflammation of bone
ex. osteodystrophy - defective bone development
ex. osteogenesis - formation of bone

9

scoli/o

crooked, bent (lateral curvature)

ex. scoliosis - the spinal column is bent abnormally to the side

10

spondyl/o (used to make words about conditions of the structure)

vertebra

ex. spondylosis - degeneration of intervertebral disks

11

vertebr/o (used to describe the structure itself)

vertebra

ex. vertebroplasty - surgical repair of the vertebra

12

-blast

embryonic or immature cell

ex. osteoblast - immature bone cell that builds up bone

13

-clast

to break

ex. osteoclast - bone cell that breaks down bone tissue

14

-listhesis

slipping

ex. spondylolisthesis - the forward slipping of a vertebra over a lower vertebra

15

-malacia

softening

ex. osteomalacia - softening of bone

16

-physis

to grow

ex. epiphysis - the end of a long bone

17

-porosis

pore, passage

ex. osteoporosis - loss of bony tissue

18

-tome

instrument to cut

ex. osteotome - instrument to cut bone

19

acetabul/o

acetabulum (hip socket)

ex. acetabular - p. the acetabulum

20

calcane/o

calcaneus (heel)

ex. calcaneal - p. the calcaneus

21

carp/o

carpals (wrist bones)

ex. carpal - p. the carpals

22

clavicul/o

clavicle (collar bone)

ex. supraclavicular - p. above the clavicle

23

cost/o

ribs (true ribs, false ribs, and floating ribs)

ex. subcostal - p. below the ribs

24

crani/o

cranium (skull)

ex. craniotomy - incision into the cranium

25

femor/o

femur (thigh bone)

ex. femoral - p. the femur

26

fibul/o

fibula (smaller lower leg bone)

ex. fibular - p. the fibula

27

humer/o

humerus (upper arm bone)

ex. humeral - p. the humerus

28

ili/o

ilium (upper part of pelvic bone)

ex. iliac - p. the ilium

29

ischi/o

ischium (posterior part of the pelvic bone)

ex. ischial - p. the ischium

30

malleol/o

malleolus (process on each side of the ankle)

ex. malleolar - p. the malleolus

31

mandibul/o

mandible (lower jawbone)

ex. mandibular - p. the mandible

32

maxill/o

maxilla (upper jawbone)

ex. maxillary - p. the maxilla

33

metacarp/o

metacarpals (hand bones)

ex. metacarpectomy - removal of the metacarpals

34

metatars/o

metatarsals (foot bones)

ex. metatarsalgia - pain of the metatarsals

35

olecran/o

olecranon (elbow)

ex. olecranal - p. the olecranon

36

patell/o

patella (kneecap)

ex. patellar - p. the patella

37

pelv/o

pelvis (hipbone)

ex. pelvimetry - measurement of the dimensions of the pelvis

38

perone/o

fibula

ex. peroneal - p. the fibula

39

phalang/o

phalanges (finger and/or toe bones)

ex. phalangeal - p. the phalanges

40

pub/o

pubis (anterior part of the pelvic bone)

ex. pubic - p. the pubis

41

radi/o

radius (forearm bone-thumb side)

ex. radial - p. the radius

42

scapul/o

scapula (shoulder blade)

ex. scapular - p. the scapula

43

stern/o

sternum (breastbone)

ex. sternal - p. the sternum

44

tars/o

tarsals (bones of the hindfoot)

ex. tarsectomy - removal of tarsals

45

tibi/o

tibia (shin bone)

ex. tibial - p. the tibia

46

uln/o

ulna (forearm bone-little finger side)

ex. ulnar - p. the ulna

47

ankyl/o

stiff

ex. ankylosis - condition of joint stiffening

48

arhtr/o

joint

ex. arthroplasty - surgical repair of a joint
ex. arthrotomy - incision into a joint
ex. hemarthrosis - condition of bleeding into joint spaces
ex. hydrathrosis - synovial fluid collects abnormally in a joint
ex. polyarthitis - inflammation of many joints

49

articul/o

joint

ex. articular cartilage - connective tissue that covers the surface of a joint

50

burs/o

bursa

ex. bursitis - inflammation of bursa

51

chondr/o

cartilage

ex. achondroplasia - defect in cartilage and bone formation
ex. chondrosarcoma - malignant tumor of the cartilage
ex. chondromalacia - softening of cartilage

52

ligament/o

ligament

ex. ligamentous - p. a ligament

53

rheumat/o

watery flow

ex. rheumatologist - specialist of joint problems

54

synov/o

synovial membrane

ex. synovitis - inflammation of the synovial membrane

55

ten/o

tendon

ex. tenorrhaphy - suture of a tendon

56

tendin/o

tendon

ex. tendinitis - inflammation of a tendon

57

-desis

to bind, tie together

ex. arthrodesis - bones are fused across the joint space by surgery

58

-stenosis

narrowing

ex. spinal stenosis - narrowing of the spinal canal

59

fasci/o

fascia (forms sheaths enveloping muscles)

ex. fasciotomy - incision of the fascia

60

fibr/o

fibrous connective tissue

ex. fibromyalgia - pain in muscles, joints, and fibrous tissue

61

leiomy/o

smooth (visceral) muscle that lines the walls of internal organs

ex. leiomyoma - tumor of smooth muscle
ex. leiomyosarcoma - malignant tumor of smooth muscle

62

my/o

muscle

ex. myalgia - muscle pain
ex. electromyography - the recording of electrical activity of muscle tissue
ex. myopathy - disease of muscle

63

myocardi/o

heart muscle

ex. myocardial - p. the hear muscle

64

myos/o

muscle

ex. myositis - inflammation of muscle

65

plant/o

sole of the foot

ex. plantar flexion - downward movement of the foot

66

rhabdomy/o

skeletal (striated) muscle connected to bones

ex. rhabdomyoma - tumor of skeletal muscle
ex. rhabdomyosarcoma - malignant tumor of skeletal muscle

67

sarc/o

muscle and flesh

ex. sarcopenia - deficiency of muscle mass and strength

68

-asthenia

lack of strength

ex. myasthenia gravis - condition causing abnormal weakness of muscles

69

-trophy

development, nourishment

ex. atrophy - decrease in size of an organ or tissue
ex. hypertrophy - increase in size of an organ or tissue
ex. amyotrophic - p. degeneration of nerves in the spinal cord

70

ab-

away from

ex. abduction - movement away from the midline of the body

71

ad-

toward

ex. adduction - movement toward the midline of the body

72

dorsi-

back

ex. dorsiflexion - upward movement of the foot

73

poly-

many, much

ex. polymyalgia - pain of many muscles