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Flashcards in Ch.14 Deck (36)

Factors in the US for the Industrial Age

Wealth and Natural Resources
Government Support of Business
Growing Urban Population
Cheap Labor
Market for New Products


Used a steam engine to drill for oil in Titusville, Pennsylvania

Edwin Drake


British inventor that came up with a new way to make steel

Henry Bessemmer


American who discovered a way to produce higher quality steel in a less expensive manner

William Kelly


Began building the Brooklyn Bridge

John Roebling


Why was william jenny able to build skyscrapers

the use of steel beams allowed great structural integrate and support


Created the first research labratory

Thomas Edison


Invented the air brake

George Westinghouse


invented the type writer

christopher sholes


invented the adding machine

William buroughs


Tellaphone and xray machone

Alexander Graham Bell


the golden spike was driven in the ground here to mark completetions of first continental railrods

Promontory Point, Utah


created the 24 time zones around the world

C.F Dowd


4 time zones

Eastern, Central, Mountain, and Pacific


Built luxury train cars and built his own factory town for his workers

George Pullman


Interstate Commerce Act 1887

1886 the supreme court ruled that a state could not set rates on interstate commerce
- this act reestablished the right of the federal government to supervise railroad activities
-also established the interstate commerce commissions-5 members- to supervise them
-ICC had difficulty regulating RR rates
-It gained power in 1906 under President Theodore Roosevelt


buy out suppliers

vertical Integreation


Buy out competing steel companies

Horizontal Integration


origin of specie

written by charles darwin
-explained the process of "natural selection
-weeded the less-suited individuals and those able to best adapt survived


Applied the theory of evolution to human society

Herbert Spencer


Purchased Andrew Carnegies steel mill

J.P Morgan


helped found the university of chicago (philanthropists)

John D. Rockefellar


John D. rockefellar

-built the standard oil company
-he controlled 90% of the oil refining business
-Drove his competitors out of business by undercutting their price and then raising the price beyond the original level
-paid his employees very low wages


Rockefellar FOundation

gave away over 500 mil
university of chicago
medical institutes- helped find cure for yellow fever


built his fortune in the steamboat and railroad industries

Cornelius Vanderbilt


"rags to riches" novel

Horatio Alger


The gospel of wealth

written by andrew Carnegie
-it is the duty of the wealthy to use their riches to advance social progress
- great riches brings great power, but also great responsibility
-Horatio Alger "rags to riches" novel
-said to stride and succeed


who founded libraries

Andrew Carnegie


Organized the Noble order of the knights of labor

Uriah Stephens


cigar maker

samuel gompers


Collective barganing

negotiating between representatives of labor and management to reach a written agreement


attempted to form an industrial union- included unskilled RR workers

eugene v debs


an economic and political based on government controls of business and property and equal distribution of wealth



the haymarket riot

May 4, 1886 in Chicago
Workers met to protest the killing of a worker and the wounding of several others at the McCormick Plant
3,000 people gathered to protest the police brutality
About 10:00pm they began to break up and someones tossed a bomb into the police line
Police opened fire on the workers
7 police and 3 workers died
8 people were convicted for inciting the riot and 4 were hanged and one committed suicide in prison
The public opinion began to turn against unions and the labor movement, because of the violence


The Homestead steel mill strike

Carnegie's plant in Pennsylvania
Called a strike on June 28, 1892 after Homestead's president Henry Clay Frick, announced that he planned to cut wages
He hired Pinkerton Detectives to protect the plant
He hired strikebreakers-scabs
The detectives came down the river by barge and the strikers fought them as they tried to exit the barge
Pennsylvania National Guard was called out and the strike lasted until November
The strikers eventually lost
It would be 45 years before steel workers struck again


Pullman Strike

Spring of 1894
After the Panic of 1893 Pullman laid off over 1/2 of his work force and cut the wages of the remaining workers
He did not reduce their rent in the company town
The American railroad Union led by Eugene V. Debs boycotted Pullman trains
It paralyzed the railroads
Strikebreakers were hired
President Grover Cleveland sent in federal troops
Debs was jailed
Strikers were fired and blacklisted