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Flashcards in Ch..5 Deck (38):
1

Why did the founding fathers reject the idea of a Democracy

the uneducated masses could never be trusted with so much power

2

A government where the citizens rule through their elected representatives

Republic

3

The idea that governments should be based on the consent of the people

Republicanism

4

an alliance where it was a loose association of states

Confederation

5

Powers granted to congress

Declare war
make peace
negotiate treaties
borrow money
set standars: weights and measures, coinage
postal service
deal with native americans

6

Powers denied to congress

No executive department
no national court
could not tax
could not regulate trade
2/3 majority need to pass a law
amendments need unanimous consent

7

Land ordinance of 1785

set up a plan to survey the land
divided out into 36 sections
one section=640 acres
family farm= 1/4 of a section @ 1$/acre 160 acres

8

Northwest ordinance of 1787

-set up requirements for admission for new states
-congress would appoint a territorial governor and judges
-territory with 5,000 voting residents could write a temporary constitution and elect their own gov
-total pop 60,000. had to be approved by Congress
-each state function independently
-problems under the articles of confederation
-pursed its own interests
-each state had one vote regardless of its size or pop
-articles could not be amended without unanimous vote
-the nation was deeply in debt from the war and congress did not have the power to tax
-proposed a tarriff, but it died when Rhode Island rejected it

9

Shays rebellion

- one of many farmers in debt after the revolution
-lived in western massachusetts
-victim of too much taxation
-he led an army of 1200 to take over the arsenal in Springfield after he had closed the courts
-The state militia was called out to stop him
-Problem- would more rebellions take place by farmers
-pointed out the weaknesses of the national gov

10

Constitutional convention

-delegates form 12 states assembled at the Philadelphia State house
-rhode island missing
-55 delegates who met in the heat
-windows closed tight
-men in 30s and 40s (educated0
-Ben frank, alex hamilton, james madison, roger sherman
-washingotn was elected pres

11

Virginia PLan

-james madison
-bicameral legislature based on proportional representation
-Lower house; elected by voters
upper house; elected by the lower house

12

New Jersey Plan

William Patterson
unicameral legislature in which each state would have equal representation (1 vote each)

13

The great compromise

roger sherman of connecticut
bicameral legislature
Lower house vs Upper House
Lower house: house of reps
-proportional
-popular vote
Upper house: senate
-equal
-elected by state legislature

14

Three Fifths Compromise

How to count Southern Slaves in the pop for the purpose of REPRESENTATION and TAXATION
-1000 slaves x 3/5=600 +white pop=total pop

15

Divided powers between the national and state governments

Federalism

16

Delgated powers

aka (enumerated): powers granted to the national gov
-foregin affairs
-national defense
-regulate trade between the states
-coin money

17

Reserved powers

Those kept by the states
-education
-trade within state
-marriage laws

18

Shared Powers

tax
borrow money
pay debts

19

System of Check and balances

to prevent one branch from becoming too powerful

20

Electoral college

purpose: to elect the president
-each state would choose a number of electors equal to the number of Reps in Congress plus the number of Senators

21

Official approval- required by the agreement of at least 9 states

ratification

22

Ratification procedure

Each state would hold a special convention
voters would elect delegates to the convention
these delegates would vote to approve or reject it
this process mostly bypassed the state legislatures
they would be giving uo more power with the new constituion

23

the first state to ratify the constitution

delaware

24

the ninth state to ratify the constituion

new hampshire

25

The first amendment

45 words 5 freedoms:
speech
press
religion
assembly
right to petition the gov

26

2nd amend

the right to bear arms

27

4th amend

no unreasonable search and seizure
must have warrant
must have probable cause

28

5th amend

indictment by grand jury
no double jeopardy
no testifying against yourself
must have due process
property cannot be taken without just compensation

29

8th amend

no exxesive bail
no cruel and unusual punishment

30

10 th amend

the powers not delegated to the united states by the constitution nor prohibited by it to the states, reserved to the states, reserved to the states respectively or to the people

31

the government could only succeed if people placed the good of the nation above their personal interest

John Dikinson

32

Philospher and economist- a republic would benefit from self interest

Adam Smith

33

father of constitution

James Madison

34

Federalist

Supported the constitution
Supported Federalism
Checks and Balances and separation of powers
Alex ham, George washington, James Madison
support base: urban areas- a strong gov could regulate trade
small states and states with weak economics
The federalist papers

35

Anti Federalists

opposed a strong central gov
too much chance of abuse
wanted a bill of rights attached
Patrick Henry, Sam Adam, Richard Henry Lee
Support base: rural areas: people feared that it would increase their tax burden
Large states and states with strong economics
Letters from the federal farmer

36

The federalist papers

a series of 85 essays that explained the constitution and the new gov
written by alex ham, james madison, and John jay
Under the pseudonym of Publius

37

letters from a federal farmer

Richard Henry Lee
Listed the rights that antifederalists beliefs should be protected
in the end, the federalists agreed to attack a bill of rights once the Constitution was passed

38

sixth amend

speedy trial
impartial jury
present and confront witnesses
right to counsel