Flashcards in Ch3: Elicited Behaviours and Classical Conditioning Deck (32):
What is elicited behaviour?
behaviour drowned out by a preceding stimulus (responsive behaviour)
What is reflex?
relatively simple, automatic response to a stimulus
What is a startle response?
a defensive reaction to a sudden, unexpected stimulus
What is an orienting response?
when we automatically position ourselves to facilitate attending to a stimulus
What is a flexion response?
automatically jerk hand/foot away from a hot/sharp object that we have inadvertently contacted and the aformentioned startle reaction (fight/flight)
What is a reflex arc?
a neural structure underlying some reflexes that consists of a sensory neuron, an interneuron, and a motor neuron
What is a fixed action pattern?
a fixed sequence of responses elicited by a specific stimulus
What is a sign stimulus?
specific stimulus that elicits a fixed action pattern (species specific behaviours) - also called releaser
What is habituation?
a decrease in the strength of an elicited behaviour following repeated presentations of the eliciting stimulus
What is sensitisation?
an increase in the strength of an elicted behaviour following repeated presentations of the eliciting stimulus
What is short-term habituation?
the responce quickly decreases as a result of repeated stimulation and the ability to respond then quickly recovers in the absence of stimulation (continuous/narrowly spaced)
What is long-term habituation?
the response slowly decreases as a result of repeated stimulation and the ability to respond then slowly recovers in the absence of stimulation (gradual/paced)
What is dishabituation?
habituated responses can also reappear following the presentation of a seemingly irrelevant novel stimulus (INTERUPTION)
What factors can affect habituation and sensitisation?
intensity of stimulus, and evolutionary significance of the stimulus
Explain opponent process theory?
proposes that an emotional event elicits two competing processes: a - primary, directly elicited by event, & b - opponent - elicited by the a process and serves to counteract
What is classical conditioning?
a stimulus comes to elicit a responce because it has been paired with (or associated) with another stimulus
What is an unconditional reflex?
consists of an US and an UR
What is a conditioned reflex?
consists of a CS and CR
What is appetitive conditioning
the unconditioned stimulus is an appetitive event (seeks out - eg overeating)
What is aversive conditioning?
the unconditioned stimulus is an aversive event (avoid - eg fears)
What is the equation for suppression ratio?
No. of CS responses / (No. of CS responses + No. of pre- CS responses)... lower ration=greater supression
What is the reinforcement affect model of attraction?
the extent to which we are attracted to someone can be significantly affected by the degree to which the person is associated with events that elicit positive emotions
What is excitatory conditioning?
conditioning in which the neutral stimulus is associated with the presentation of an US (CS comes to elicit a certain response - NS becomes CS)
What is inhibitory conditioning?
conditioning in which the neutral stimulus is associated with the absense or removal of a US (another CS comes to inhibit the occurance of a certain stimulus
What is delayed conditioning?
the onset of the NS precedes the onset of the US and the two stimuli overlap (most effective)
What is trace conditioning?
the onset and offset of the NS precedes the onset of the US (NS before US - no overlap)
What is simultaneous conditioning?
the onset of the NS and onset of the US occurs simultaneously (coincide exactly)
What is backward conditioning?
the onset of the NS, follows the onset of the US (US first, NS second - least effective)
What is temporal conditioning?
a form of CC in which the CS is the passage of time
What is pseudoconditioning?
an elicited response that appears to be a CR is actually the result of sensitisation rather than conditioning
What is rote learning?
repetition of particular stimuli