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Flashcards in Chaoter Deck (43):
1

Marine vs. oceanographers

Marine: organisms that live in sea LIVING
Ocean: study physical aspects of sea (wave, tide, current, chemical makeup) NON LIVING

2

What comes from the sea

Products and medicines derived from marine species, food resources, and other items
Ex: agar culture bacteria
Carrageenan thicken dairy products

3

Marine organisms produce

Oxygen used by aerobic organisms, including humans

4

Oceans help to regulate

Climate
Ocean is slow to change in temp. Because of sheer volume , keeps land masses more stable

5

Who were early explorations made by

Pacific Islanders, Phoenicians who sailed med. sea, Black Sea, Red Sea, Indian Ocean, eastern Atlantic Ocean

6

Exploration in dark ages

Leif Ericsson discovered Vinland 995 AD WHICH IS NOW NORTH AMERICA

7

Renaissance exploration

Columbus rediscovered new world in 1492

8

English sea captain

James cook included naturalist among crew
-sailed all the oceans first Europeans to view arctic ice fields land on Hawaii and Tahiti s well as many other pacific islands
-extensive mapping and brought back specimens

9

Charles Darwin sailed on

HMS beagle 1831-1836 as naturalist

10

Edward Forbes

Extensively studied sea floor around British isles , Aegean Sea, and other locales in 1840's/50's
Major discovery is discovery of species on seafloor greatly varying by depth

11

Zonation

Defined as presence of organisms in particular range or zone
Organisms will be found in distinct zone based on tolerance to physical or environmental conditions in that zone

12

Charles Wyville Thompson

Scientific leader of challenger 1872-1876
First major expedition devoted to studying marine organisms
Thousands of species never previously discovered pub. 50 volumes of info collected over next 19 years

13

Oldest research station

Woods hole marine biological lab , MA

14

Sonar

Used to map seafloor depths and formations

15

Scuba

Used for direct human exploration of oceanic environment for longer periods and at deeper depths than would otherwise be available to man

16

Research vessel

Floating laboratories allow oceanographers to exp,ore marine environments for weeks months or years without returning to land based facility

17

Underwater research station- Aquarius

Located in Florida keys
Located approx. 60 feet under water allows to stay at depth for days or weeks
Eating sleeping etc. is done

18

Scientific method is

Systematic way of testing ideas

19

Heart of method is

Observe

20

You cannot --- a hypothesis

Prove , only disprove

21

Tested repeatedly and not disproved

Considered to be true and becomes a theory

22

Factors are

Variables

23

Science can offer no answers on

Values beliefs or feelings

24

First scientific expedition to explore worlds oceans

Challenger

25

When did oceanography begin to take off

world war 2 because navy wanted to gain advantage through the ocean

26

Four factors that led Polynesians to migrate eastward

Tribal wars, disease epidemics, food, natural disasters

27

Beginning 25,000 years ago Polynesians began to colonize islands of
They moved to and in eastern South Pacific

South and western pacific...New Guinea in west, Fiji , and Samoa in the middle
Tahiti and Easter island

28

Polynesians colonized Hawaii, what tools did they lack

500 years ago
Compass, sextant, clocks

29

Why did sailors mistake great bodies of water on other side of straight for river

Only seen currents in rivers

30

What did they call great body of water

Okeano that's what they called rivers

31

Captain James cook beginning in... Circumnavigated the globe ..times over.. Years

1768, 3,10

32

What did Ben Franklin observe off east coast of United States
And how fast does it go

Gulf Stream 5 knots

33

British warship HMS beagle went in year, to
Discovered theory of

1831 Galápagos Islands , natural selection

34

according to Darwin variations with species occur , and survival is determined by ability to

Randomly , adapt to environment

35

Challenger had different types of samplers to

Grab roots or mud from ocean floors and nets to capture Animals from diff. Depths

36

Winches

Mechanical engines used to lower and hoist sounding lines to measure how deep ocean was.

37

Discovered deepest part , located in, . It is more than .... Deep

Mariana's trench , western pacific , 4

38

Why was sonar developed and what does it stand for

Detect submarines during war, sound navigation and ranging

39

Less than... Years ago scientist.... Discovered evidence that led him to believe continents had once been ... But later ...

100, Alfred wegener, whole, divided

40

Three prices of evidence for Alfred wegener

Plant and animal fossils that were similar on separate continents, similar rock formations, coastlines that fit together

41

Theory was proposed in... And called

1415 continental drift

42

What are core samples and provide evidence of what two theories

Sediment and rock between seafloor
Seafloor spreading and plate tectonics and climate has been changed

43

Marine biology

Study of organisms that live in the sea (all water that has degree of salinity)