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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (104):
1

All matter is composed of

Elements of diff. Types

2

Elements naturally occur as

Atoms

3

Atoms can be found

Solo or found together in molecules

4

Molecules are the result of

Two or more atoms bounded together chemically

5

Not all molecules are

Compounds

6

Water molecule has slight...... Why?

Negative and positive charge, oxygen is more electromagnetic

7

Positive charges are near... And the negative are near

Hydrogen, oxygen

8

Hydrogen bonds are what keeps water at

Room temperature

9

Due to slight electrical charges water molecules are

Attracted to each other

10

Attraction of one molecule to another is called

Hydrogen bonding

11

The colder water gets what happens to density until 4 degrees Celsius

Density increases , until 4 degrees when. They spread out again

12

Hydrogen bonds keep water molecules

Cohesive

13

The gas from of water is

Water vapor, humidity

14

When molecules are closer together there is

Greater density

15

Water ... At 4 degrees Celsius and this is why ice

Expands, float

16

Cold water.... Underneath warmer water

Sinks

17

Colder water holds more .., than the same volume of water

Oxygen, good for organisms

18

Ice is ... Dense than liquid water due to the ....

Less, air trapped in it

19

If ice did not float

Water would freeze form bottom up and everything would freeze

20

Matter is anything that

Has mass and takes up space

21

Water has high

Latent heat of melting, ice melts at Hugh temp and absorbs a great deal of heat as it does

22

Heat capacity

Amount of heat required to raise a substances temperature by a given amount

23

Amounts of water

61% freshwater in ice 30% underground 3% we have access to

24

What place stores the most heat

Western Atlantic warm pool

25

High heat compactly is good for marine organisms why

Not subject to wide temp. Ranges like we are on land , exception is shallow water warms up quick because of small volume

26

Great deal of heat required for

Evaporation which is why water stays in ocean

27

Water acts as a solvent meaning

Things dissolve into it

28

Any substance dissolved in water is called a

Solute

29

Levels of solutes in water is called

Salinity

30

Main solutes dissolved in water... Measured in

Chloride and sodium, ppt part per thousand 1000 grams of water 35 grams of salt

31

Ocean water where it meets a river can be

15-25 ppt

32

Where can ppt be higher

If evaporation is high and no rivers lead into water

33

Water is relatively..... Good for .... Organisms... Level of penetration varies by

Transparent , photosynthetic, amount of solutes in the water

34

What is difference between Bahamas and Norht Carolina

Rivers dump solutes into North Carolina waters

35

First color to dissappear and at what feet

10 meters 33 feet red

36

Water comes from.. And to a lesser extent

Rivers, precipitation... Melting of polar ice caps symptom of sea level rising.... Thermal expansion

37

Solutes come from

Weathering of rocks, rivers that have solutes in them, hydrothermal vents

38

Anions chloride and sulfide come from

Volcanoes and places where magma comes up under water

39

CTions sodium potassium magnesium come from

Rivers and weathering

40

May gasses dissolved in sea water

Oxygen (source) carbon dioxide ( absorb sink)nitrogen(from waste)

41

Atmospheric Co2 is ... In ocean

High

42

Gasses dissolve at .... For, the atmosphere

Sea surface

43

Like other aerobic organisms many organisms in ocean utilize... And expel

Oxygen carbon dioxide

44

Under what condition does water hold the most dissolved gas

Cold

45

1 ATM equals..... And balloon decreases by

10 meters decrease balloon by a half

46

Differences seen in diff. Parts of ocean are due to

Circulation patterns

47

Circulation can occur as

Waves, tides, currents and gyres

48

Circulation is driven by

Wind patterns driven by sun, which is driven by heat

49

As sunlight heats air, the air

Rises and cool air takes place of the risen

50

Mid morning the wind is ... Vs at night

Onshore because land heats quicker
Offshore because land cools quicker

51

Winds created in this pattern continuously at the equator are known as

Trade winds

52

Westerlies in .... And easterlies at ...... Are .... Than trade winds

Mid latitude, poles, less consistent

53

Current goes to the .... Of the trade winds

Right

54

In the northern hemisphere

Wind direction is up and current is 45 degrees to right

55

Waves are the result of

Wind blowing over waters surface

56

Size of wave depends on

How long and fast the wind blows

57

Fetch is the amount of

Open water a wind blows over

58

Highest pint of wave is... Lowest point is

Crest trough

59

Distance between two crests is

Wavelength

60

The time it takes wave to pass by set point is

Wave period

61

Waves transfer .... Water is not actually

Energy ... Moving

62

Waves do not move water... Does

Wind

63

As a wave nears the shore what happens

Bottom of wave drags the bottom which causes waves to slow and move together shorter wavelength... Drag causes wave crest to fall over is called a wave break

64

The surf caused from the ....displaces lots of .... Affecting organisms

Wave break.... Sand

65

Currents can be in ..... Layers of deeper water layers

Surface

66

Both winds and the currents they drive are affected by the

Coriolanus effect

67

Since earth is spinning it causes the

Deflection of winds and currents

68

Deflection causes currents to travel in circular patterns called

Gyres

69

Surface layer, intermediate, bottom layer

200 meters, well mixed ; 200-1500 temperature change and less mixing; below 1500 low mixing and uniformity cold

70

Where is the oldest deep water

North Pacific before it up wells

71

Water sinks due to changes in

Salinity and temperature down welling

72

Down welling brings gases from surface to

Deeper layers

73

Areas of upwelling come from

Currents that push deeper waters towards surface

74

Nutrients are more plentiful in

Deeper layers so areas of upwelling are beneficial for organisms in that area

75

Circulation is driven by... Which are

Tides. Rhythmic raising a and falling of the sea surface levels which are caused by gravitational pull form moon

76

Semi diurnal

Most locations have two high tides and two low tides a day

77

One high and one low tide a day is

Diurnal

78

High tide happens when moon is on

Horizon

79

Number and size of tides can be affected by

Bottom features and geographic features

80

Spring tides are when

Sun and moon are in line and tidal range is greater

81

Neap tides

When sun and moon are not aligned

82

Organisms living in areas exposed during low tide are affected greatly by

Spring tide

83

Movement of water during tidal changes

Significant mixing

84

Tidal are not tidal in nature but the result of

Extreme tectonic activity

85

Tsunamis are preceded

By acknowledged of water that appears as an extreme low tide

86

Recent tsunamis in

Indian Ocean and off coast of Japan

87

Comprises 85% of seawater

Sodium chloride

88

Rapid change in temperature with increasing depth

Thermocline

89

What does Secchi disk measure

Transparency and how much light penetrates

90

Place in water column where most intense part of water transport occurs due to waves and currents

Surface

91

Winds are driven by

Temperature

92

Causes deep surfCe currents to move 90 degrees in the northern hemisphere

Eichman spiral

93

Where does wind move in northern hemisphere

Down

94

What does tsunami result from

Wave reinforcement

95

Minimal tide range is caused by

Neap tide

96

What is the only substance that naturally occurs in three states

Water

97

Water is capable for transporting large amounts of .... Due to heat

Energy, capacity

98

Water is called the......because it can dissolve so many things

Universal

99

Salts are composed of oppositely charged particles called

Ions

100

Density is determined by

Salinity and temperature

101

What light penetrates the deepest

Blue

102

What does the colioris affect do

Deflects all large scale motions on earth's surface

103

Gyres

Major surface currents that form large circular systems

104

Tides are influence by

Location and body features like depth and shale of basin of water