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Flashcards in Chapter 6 Deck (60):
1

Algae are not plants because

They do not have same advanced structures like root, stem, and leaves

2

Why do the structures of the thallus lack that plants have

Advanced conducting tissues

3

Pneumatocysts

Gas filled bladders used to keep blades near water surface for light for photosynthesis

4

Green algae phylum.... Mostly because only % are marine

Chlorphyta freshwater, 10%

5

Brown Algae phylum, largest of the .....

Phaeophyta , marine

6

Red algae phylum, has the most...., most are ...

Rhodophyta , species, filamentous

7

Brown algae is masked by

Fucoxanthins

8

Red algae is masked by

Phycobilins

9

Like plants, algae exhibit a life history marked by

Alteration of generations like butterfly

10

Gametophyte stage

Produces gametes that fuse to become zygote

11

Zygote develops into second stage called

Sporophyte hat produces spores

12

Spores develop into

Gametophyte stage

13

Algae can reproduce asexually by

Vegetative growth

14

Algin is an extract of..... Used as an

Brown algae , emulsifier in dairy products

15

Carrageenan is harvested from

Red algae, used as a thickening agent

16

Agar is an extract from

Red algae, culture microbes in health industry , thickener, filler and protect canned foods

17

How many species of green algae and how many marine, thought to be ancestor of....

7000,1000

18

What size is green algae and what is it sometimes made of, store excess energy as...., what is in cell wall

Micro-macro, coralline (calcium carbonate halimeda), starch, cellulose

19

How many species of brown algae and how many marine, sizes, what water do they prefer , examples

1500, most marine, some microscopic to 300+ feet , shallow cold, kelp sargassum fucus

20

Giant kelp can be ...of feet in length , the kelp... Provides habitat for species ,

100's , forest

21

Kelp forests are among he most......marine habitats

Productive

22

Where is sargassum found

Atlantic between North America and Europe as well as the Gulf of Mexico

23

What are massive floating mats of sargassum called

Sargasso Sea

24

Red algae how many species how many marine, what water do they like?, some are....,

4000 mostly marine, deep cold or shallow warm depending on species, corraline (corralina)

25

What are true plants, how many species

Angiosperms , over 250,000

26

Are most angiosperms marines and if they are they must what

No; have mechanisms for dealing with salinity

27

Sea grasses about ... Species exits in temperate and tropical; flowers are; how is pollen and seeds carried ?

60 , small and inconspicuous , water currents or in feces

28

Sea grasses have.. Growth and provide... To many organisms

Rapid , food

29

Sea grasses provide habitat through, what is the most widely distributed

Sea grass beds, eelgrass in shallow water bays and estuaries

30

About species of mangroves exist only in tropical and subtropical areas , they cannot withstand... Temperatures

80, freezing

31

They can only tolerate partial.... , they are a thick network of .... That are exposed at ... Tide

Salt water submergence , prop roots, low

32

Seeds of mangroves germinate while....... And develop into elongated seedlings up to ..... Before falling from parent tree

Still attached to parent, 1 foot,

33

Mangrove forests are called and can be thought of as tropical equivalent to....

Mangals, salt marshes

34

Mangroves lie between

25n and 25s

35

Where are mangroves rooted near

Intertidal zone

36

Mangrove community can be divided into habitats such as

Above water forest habitat, interiors all swamp habitat, submerged sub tidal habitat

37

4 of up to ...-.... Species worldwide along with... Species of flowering terrestrial

50-100, 60

38

Zonation of species corresponds to , they have physiological adaption to ?

Sea level, extrude or exclude salt

39

Four species can occur in...

Mixed stands

40

Or they can occur in differentiated zones based on

Tidal influence
Level of salinity
Type of substrate

41

Typically occur in dense stands with little or no....

Understory

42

Root system of mangrove consists of , what two things does this allow them

Aerial roots and prop roots that intertwine over muddy substrate
Increased stability to wave action
Obtain oxygen from air as opposed to substrate

43

Many species are .... When it comes to birth

Viviparous

44

Roots for red, black and white

Prop and drop, peg roots, snorkel roots (pneumatophores)

45

Ecology of shoreline

Stabilize soil, coastline protection, water quality, food web, refuge

46

Generic term for seaweed

Macro algae

47

Spartina marsh plants are

Plants bordering shallow bays and tidal creeks

48

Cordgrass, spartina is the predominant ?

Salt marsh plant in grass family

49

When is spartina exposed to saltwater

High tide

50

Spartina is extremely important as a habitat to?

Young marine animals such as invertebrate and fish

51

Very little spartina is directly consumed by?..... What is it importance

Herbivores, primary produce that when plants die back in winter no bacteria and fungus break down leaves to detritus

52

Spartina posses salt glands to help deal with

Excess salt

53

Other halophytes ??? Exist in areas of

Salt tolerant plants, elevation than spartina

54

Red mangroves dominate the, reach heights of, what color wood, leaves, propagates are how long

Middle and lower portion of the intertidal zone, 25 cm., dark red, shiny, waxy, deep green above and pale underneath, 30 cm

55

What kind of roots do red mangroves have

Prop roots

56

Black mangroves predominate, reach heights of, what color bark, propagates

Upper intertidal into irregularly flooded higher elevation "high swamp", 20m, dark brown, leaves, narrow shiny green above and gray below encrusted with salt, Lima bean shape 2.5 cm

57

Roots of black mangrove

Cable roots that radiate out of trunk and send up pneumatophores "snorkel roots"

58

White mangroves predominate, height, bark, leaves, propagules

Irregularly flooded higher elevation also found in intertidal zone, 15m, gray brown, round oval and nectaries salt glands at apex , small and pear shaped 1cm

59

White mangrove roots

Lack prop and pneumatophores , peg roots

60

Buttonwood height, leaves , what forms seeds

18 m , erectus: green with little or no hairs sericus: silver with darker underside felt like, fruit not propagules