Marine Mammals Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Marine Mammals Deck (57):
1

Are all species of turtles endangered or threatened

Yes

2

Both designations of endangered and threatened give these species under protection from

Endangered species act

3

How many species of sea turtles today, green sea turtles has which two types

7 or 8
Pacific or Atlantic

4

Four types of marine reptiles

Sea turtles sea snakes marine iguana saltwater crocodile

5

What is the upper shell and lower shell called respectively ?, ribs are ... In size and ...to the shell, do sea turtles have teeth?, how do they regulate body temperature

Carapace, plastron
Expanded, fused
No
Poikilothermic and ectothermic

6

What happens to the leatherback sea turtle and why when dealing with body temperature

Several degrees above ambient water temp. Because of how large it is

7

Where do sea turtles breed?, what kind of fertilization, can females store sperm?, one clutch can have ?

At sea
Internal
Yes
Multiple paternity

8

How often do female sea turtles breed , during breeding year how many clutches of eggs can they lay, how many eggs in one clutch and how many survive

2-4 years
Up to 7
120
1%

9

What is the incubation period for sea turtle eggs , what do warmer and colder temperatures do to sea turtle eggs development

60 days 2 months
Warmer=faster
Colder=slower

10

Temp. Dependent sex determination

There is a pivotal temp. That will produce 50% male and 50% female
Higher than that pivotal temp. Will produce females and lower than that temp. Will produce males

11

Smallest of the sea turtles , one nesting site in ?, who protects and why

Kemps Ridley
Rancho Nuevo, Mexico
Us and Mexican govt. wildlife protect because of endangerment

12

What is the only vegetarian sea turtle , why are they nesting as far as North Carolina now, first report? And what is wrong with these reports

The green sea turtle
Temperature change
1950 and 1980
Confirmation bias

13

How big is the leatherback sea turtle , what is the tropical species

6ft-9 ft and 1000 pounds
Hawksbill

14

How many species of sea snakes and where are they not located? What kind of body and tail, and how long

55
Atlantic (in Indian and pacific tho)
Laterally flattened body with paddle tail
3-4ft

15

Where do sea snakes breed and what type of birth? Where do they sometimes return to lay eggs?, can bites be fatal and why? Are they known to be aggressive? What do they eat

At sea
Ovoviviparous
Land
Yes because they are related to the cobra
No
Carnivorous: fish

16

Saltwater crocodiles are found where?, they reach over how many feet?, what is the difference between it and an alligator, but they are aggressive?

Indian, western pacific islands
Mangroves, estuaries, rivers, and open ocean though rare
Over 20 ft
Not a secretive species
Hunters

17

Where do marine iguanas live, how do they eat, what are unique traits , why do they have a blunt nose

Galapagos island
Dive and feed on sea grass near shore
Sharp claws to dig into rocks
Large males gain enough body heat to go to bottom
To graze on rocks

18

How are seabirds similar to mammals when it comes to body heat?, what are their feathers coated with ?, what kind of egg

Maintain constant body temp. By metabolic means
Oil
Hard shelled

19

What south Florida birds have no oil

Anhinga
Cormorant

20

Many species of seabirds are colonial nesters, give an example

Penguins 2 mill.

21

Are some seabirds monogamous and have one partner for life ?

Yes

22

Penguins are what kind of bird, what is their wing modified into, what do penguins spend a long time doing, where do they mainly live, males and females share what responsibility ?

Flightless, flipper like structure
In marine environment searching for prey
Antarctica
Parenting

23

Characteristics of mammals
# of species
Skin possesses ?
What type of body temp. Regulation
Mostly ...birth
What kind of glands ?
Brain size ?
Sexually.....

4600
Hair
Homeothermic
Viviparous
Mammary
Larger in relation to body
Dimorphic

24

Pinnipeda examples

Seals sea lions walruses

25

Carnivora

Sea otter and polar bear

26

Sirenia

Dugong and manatees

27

Cetacea

Whales Dolphins porpoises

28

Differences between seals and sea lions

Sea lions have external ear where seals don't
Sea lions can rotate rear limbs for better locomotion (posterior flipper moved forward and anterior rotated back)
Seals use posterior flipper for swimming sea lions use anterior

29

How many species of seals, temp. Of water, which seal is an exception to the type of water they like (explain the areas where they are endangered)

19
Cold or cool
Monk seal likes warmer, Hawaiian and Mediterranean endangered
Caribbean monk possibly extinct because not seen since 1950

30

Seals diet, lifespan and range

Fish, shellfish, Cephalopoda
Varies: 45 in ringed and 14 in elephant male
Coastlines and ice fronts throughout the world except Indian Ocean

31

Lion/fur seals description,size and weight

Fusiform body with small tail , limbs are flattened , blunt nose and whiskers
3.6-10.8 feet (110-130cm)
47-2,205 pounds

32

Sea lions/fur seals: sexual maturity, life span, range, habitat

Male:4-6 years female:4
15-25 rarely exceeds 30
Northeastern Asia, western North America, South America, Southern Africa, southern Australia, New Zealand and other southern islands
Coastal areas, shallow water, abundant food resources

33

Walrus description , specifically head region, are they able to rotate hind flippers? Adult males have longer and stouter ?

Lack external ear flaps , hundreds of vibrissae (whiskers) both males and females have large tusks
Yes under pelvic girdle to walk on all fours
Tusks

34

Size of walruses and their diet , sexual maturity

Male: 9-12 female: 7.5-10
Molluscs, benthic invertebrates, prey upon seals especially bearded and ringed
Male:8-10 female:5-6
Not successful until 15 , normally dominant male gets all the ladies

35

Sea otters size, and weight

Alaskan bigger than Californian
Average size is 4 ft in Californian male
In Alaskan it is 58 in.
Up to 85 pounds

36

Why do sea otters eat so much and what do they eat?, gestation, explain the esteral period

Metabolic rate much higher than mammals their size eat up to 20 lbs per day
Sea urchin, abalone, crabs, clams , mussels, octopus
4-9 months average of 6
Reproductive cycle is 12 months and if pup doesn't survive mother may experience postpartum estrus

37

Life span and range of sea otters

10-15 years
Eastern North Pacific Ocean

38

Polar bear description, size and weight , what are the males called

Translucent fur, largest land carnivore, black skin
8.2-9.8 , 6.6-8.2
772-1433
Boar

39

Polar bear life span, range and population

15-18 some over 30
Circumpolar Arctic
21,500-25,000

40

Trichecus Manatus is the.... Manatee? What are the two subspecies? How are they distinguished

West Indian
Florida and antillean
Cranial measurements and geographic distribution

41

Manatee description

Streamlined body , paddle shaped tail, true gray color
Algae may grow on skin

42

Manatee size and weight

10 ft, large may reach up to 13 ft
800-1200
Large Florida weighed in at 3650

43

Did the order Cetacea migrate into the ocean? Fore limbs are modified into?, fin like tail is known as a ?, where are nostrils located and what are they called

Yes
Flippers
Fluke
On the top of the head as a single or double blowhole

44

Two suborder of Cetacea, what is the difference , which are bigger

Odontocetes -toothed, single blowhole
Mysticete- baleen , double blowhole

Baleen much larger than tooth
85 ft.
Vs.20 ft

45

How does a baleen eat its food

It traps the food and pushes the water back out

46

How can a whale be identified

Fluke shape, blow pattern or side view

47

Toothed whales are named for, what kind of teeth do porpoises have

Their leg like teeth that are comical and interlocking
Spade shaped

48

Toothed whales include

Dolphins, porpoises, belugas, narwhals, Sperm whales, killer whales, river dolphins beaked whales

49

What is apnuestic breathing, how much element of oxygen do lungs remove compared to humans, what kind of tissue helps the lungs expand, marine mammals have more.... Than non diving animals for their size

Rapid breathing prior to dive
90%, 20%
Elastic
Blood , (more hemoglobin)

50

Muscles contain more?, the heart rate slowing dramatically is called?, blood flow is reduced to?, muscles employ....respiration as necessary which results in?, marine mammals can tolerate more?, ribs and lungs do what to force air into tissues and prevent what?

Myoglobin
Bradycardia
Extremities
Anaerobic, lactic build up
Lactic acid
Collapse decompression sickness

51

What directs outgoing waves?, after an echo strikes the object it does what?, what are the echoes received back by?, the longer it takes the echo to return means what

Melon
Reflects back
Lower jaw and melon
The farther away it is

52

Marine mammals are known well for ? Like the ...of sea lions and ... Of humpback whale

Vocalization

Braking
Song

53

Why do mammals breach

Remove parasites, fun, warning signal, avoid suitors

54

Marine mammals holding their bodies out of the water is known as what?

Spy hopping

55

Marine mammals are known for their?, what is the longest one and what animal

Migration
11,000 miles, gray whale

56

Fertilization is internal via:
Copulation occurs on land for... Where males compete for?
What is delayed implantation

Copulation
Pinnipeds, harem
Allows the calf to be born at the time that is the best for the survival of it

57

Gestation varies in marine mammals normally how many months for cetaceans, calves are born what first and attached to what so that they can be forced to the surface to take first breath

11-12 months
Tail
Placenta