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Flashcards in Tide Pool Deck (49):
1

The intertidal borders the ?

Subtidal zone which is always submerged

2

The intertidal zone is exposed during ?

Low tide

3

The substrate in an intertidal zone can be ?

Soft or rocky

4

Soft v. Rocky

Sand silt or mixture (mud)
Type of rock present and the degree or height of the slope

5

Epifauna

Organisms that live on the surface of a substrate
Mud snails on soft
Barnacles on hard

6

Infauna

Organisms that live in the substrate
Clams burrowed in soft bottoms

7

Meiofauna

Organisms that are so small they live in between the grains of soft substrate
Attached: sessile
Or motile

8

Organisms face a variety of challenges including

Desiccation
Temperature changes
Salinity changes
Interrupted feeding
Wave action oxygen availability and build up of CO2
Limited space

9

Water loss is more pronounced on what kinds of days , they deal with this potential water loss by?

Hot dry windy
Clamming up

10

What does a snail use to clam up into or breathe ?

Operculum

11

A motile organisms may move where to not lose water ?

Tide pool or area with more moisture

12

Hiding may also mean that organisms live in places where postures remains like ?

Crevices in a rock or low spots in soft bottoms

13

What is the downside of clamming up

No exchange of gas or feeding

14

What are some mechanisms marine animals have to keep cool

They have a light color so it's cooler
They have ridges in their shells to increase surface area

15

How dramatically can salinity change , what is normal ocean salinity , estuarine salinity

40+ ppt
33-35 ppt
5-30'

16

Organisms in the intertidal zone are ?
Organisms in the sub tidal zone are ?

Euryhaline : can tolerate large changes
Stenohaline: can tolerate little changes dealing with salinity

17

Salinity may start at what ?

20-25
Goes down because of thunderstorm
Goes up because of water loss when intertidal is exposed

18

When does feeding cease for filter feeders

When exposed to air, like barnacles

19

How do snails feed at low tide

Scraping algae off surfaces

20

For communities with semi diurnal tides an organism could?

Nearly half of their day in submerged and not feeding

21

The degree of impact of waves affects , waves conform to shoreline in order of

Their distribution
Decreasing depth

22

Waves are a disturbance to organisms living directly exposed by? Which type of shoreline is often exposed to them harsher, in soft bottom communities who is exposed to them ? Marsh communities?

Dislodging them from their habitat
Rocky shorelines
Open beaches
Not exposed to a lot because positioned behind open beach

23

When can oxygen be exhausted

When an organisms clams up during low tide or if there are a lot of organisms living there

24

When does carbon dioxide build up? Some species have

When organisms cannot exchange these gases with their environment
Evolved the capability to exchange gases in air and water-crabs

25

Where is space the most limited , in soft bottoms space is limited why ?

Rocky intertidal environs,tons where surface area is limited
Organisms prefer hard substrate like oyster reef so that they don't need to worry about washing away because of wave action

26

Intertidal zone is the area between

Mean low tide and mean high tide

27

Zonation consists of what levels

Upper intertidal
To middle and lower intertidal

28

What is normally on the upper intertidal zone

Periwinkle , lichen , encrusting algae, limpets

29

What is normally on middle

Barnacles , mussels, seaweed

30

What is normally in lower intertidal

Seaweeds , surf grass

31

Where is competition greater and why , it is always more .... Rich?

In lower intertidal because it is the least severe and exposed less
Species

32

What is distribution determined by

Toleration, competition, predation

33

Little gray barnacles v. Rock barnacles

Gray can tolerate being higher up because can tolerate desiccation, however can't go too low because of competition from rock barnacles.
Rock barnacles can't go high up because can't tolerate desiccation, don't go too low because predation of dog whelks and competition with mussels

34

When one organism is a better competitor of another , it will outgrow the other when the environment is ?

Un disturbed

35

If a habitat is disturbed , organisms move in and are later excluded in a predictable pattern known as

Succession

36

What will form when the community is undisturbed for and extended period of time ?

Climax community

37

Does a climax community have the highest diversity ?

No

38

Low disturbance means

The organisms best suited to resource acquisition will dominate

39

High disturbance

The organisms most resisted to disturbance or rapidly colonizing will dominate

40

Intermediate disturbance hypothesis

Suggests that the highest diversity will occur when a middle or moderate amount of disturbance occurs

41

The smaller the particles size the less ?

Oxygen that can fit in these spaces
Clay , silt , sand , gravel
.004,.062 ,2 mm

42

The size also affects how ?

Water drains
I'm coarse it drains quickly ,min fine it drains slowly
In poorly sorted water is blocked

43

The grain size in most intertidal communities is so ..... That all except the top few inches will be ?

Small , anoxic (without oxygen)

44

In fauna must maintain a connection with oxygenated zones via

Tube, siphon, extended burrows

45

What exists in the anoxic zone

Anaerobic bacteria the break down organics

46

What forms the basis for soft bottom communities

Chemoautotrophs, detritus, photo autotrophs (producers)

47

Who are the consumers in a soft bottom community

Detritus, suspension feeders( crabs sand crabs polychaetaes) , deposit feeders (polychaetes crabs) , carnivores (fishes birds moon snails)

48

The food web in the rocky intertidal zone is based on

Autotrophs such as sea grasses, algae and diatoms

49

Top carnivores in any community that have the ability to?

Change community composition significantly are known as keystone species