Chapter 4 Quiz Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Quiz Deck (71):
1

What four organic molecules make up living organisms

Lipids: fats keep warm
Proteins: building tissue, carbohydrates:energy make shell out of, nucleic acids: DNA

2

Marine organism that needs lipids

Photosynthetic

3

In photosynthesis plants algae and other autotrophs use

Pigments to capture energy in sunlight and used to build carbohydrates

4

The source of carbon for building carbohydrates is

Carbon dioxide , oxygen is released as byproduct

5

Whether heterotroph or autotroph still need to break down

Carbohydrates for energy

6

What is the process for breaking down carbohydrates for energy called

Cellular respiration

7

Respiration consumes.... And produces ...... As byproducts

Oxygen....carbon dioxide and water

8

Water turns into and oxygen turns into

Glucose and oxygen carbon dioxide

9

When autotrophs make more energy than they can sue the excess is called

Primary production, inorganic simple things into organic complex things

10

Organisms who perform primary production at called

Primary producers

11

Marine organisms are major source of

Worldwide primary production

12

Maine organisms require.... In Order to turn carbohydrates into other types of

Nutrients, molecules

13

The nutrients can include

Minerals vitamins and even raw elements

14

Two major groups based on cellular composition

Prokaryotic
Eukaryotic

15

Prokaryotic

Lack nucleus
Ribosomes
Circular ring of dna
May have plasmids extra pieces of DNA
Cell wall normally present
May have flagellum
Unicellular

16

Eukaryotic

DNA in nucleus
Specialized organelles
Unicellular or multicellular

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Atom

Fundamental unit of all matter; carbon,phosphorous

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Molecule

Two or more atoms joined chemically together; water, proteins

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Organelle

Specialized features of cell; nucleus, mitochondrion

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Cell

Basic unit of life; muscle cell, single cell organisms

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Tissue

Group of cells functioning as a unit; muscle tissue

22

Organ

Many tissues arranged into a structure with a. Specific purpose in the organism; stomach

23

Organ system

Group of organs that work together; digestive system

24

Four organic molecules

Oxygen,hydrogen, carbon

25

Population

Group of organisms of same species occurring in same habitat; all the Muscles on a stretch of rocky shore

26

Communities

All populations that exist in particular habitat, like coral reef; rocky shore community

27

Ecosystem

Combination of the community and the physical environment; nearshore ecosystem

28

Solutes move from areas of higher concentrations to areas of ........ Which is called

Diffusion

29

Movement from water from area of higher concentration to less concentrated area through semi permeable membrane

Osmosis

30

Marine organisms live in a very ..... Rich environment and have the tendency to

Solute-rich gain Solutes and lose water

31

If the water loss and solute gain is significant it can cause ..... So organisms need to find a way to deal with

Death of cells, osmosis/diffusion

32

Osmoconformers

Do not attempt to control solute water balance, internal concentration varies as salinity in water around them changes, can only tolerate very narrow range of salinity

33

Osmoregulators

Control internal concentrations, wider range of salinities, secrete very little urine or use specialized glands to secrete salts

34

Marine fish Osmoregulators

35 ppt in ocean 14 ppt inside
Water loss through osmosis in gills and skin
Salt in pee
Drinks in salt water
Excreted by gills
Pass through gut

35

Freshwater Osmoregulators

0 ppt in water 14 ppt inside
Water gained through osmosis through skin
Not drink
Salt absorbed by gills
Large volume diluted in urine
No salts enter gut

36

Ectotherms

Generate body heat metabolically but cannot maintain constant internal body temperature, dependent on surroundings

37

Poikilotherms

Body temperature mimics the surrounding environment, do not use metabolism

38

Many ectotherms are

Poikilotherms

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Endotherms

Generate body heat metabolically and body temp. Does not match temperature of surrounding environment , birds and mammals

40

Homeotherms

These organisms retain metabolic heat and can control metabolism to maintain a constant internal temperature

41

Homeotherms are

Endotherms

42

Asexual reproduction

Not involve two individuals, young are produced by single parent , young are genetically identical

43

Types of asexual reproduction

Fission, budding, vegetative production

44

Fission

Splitting of organism into two smaller organisms of equal size

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Budding

Organism develops buds that break off and become organism

46

Vegetative reproduction

Plant reproduces new individuals by ending underground stem, rhizome sideways which new plants will sprout

47

Sexual reproduction

Produce gametes that unite to produce new genetically unique individual

48

What produces egg/ sperm

Ovaries, testes

49

Broadcast spawning

Release eggs and sperm directly into water

50

In Spawning there has to be a .... Amount of gametes released in order to be effective. They release gametes according to

Large, moon phase, water temp. 8 days after first full moon

51

Internal fertilization

Copulatory organ insert Soren directly into females reproductive tract

52

Internal fertilization requires what? And how many gametes are needed for success

Contact between two parents, less gametes

53

Hermaphrodites

Male and female reproductive tissues either simultaneously or at different phases

54

Protandry

Spends first part of life as functional male then becomes female after some cue initiates change

55

Protogyny

An individual that spends the first portion of life as female then turns into male, most fish

56

Evolution is

Change in genetic makeup of pop. Over time

57

In wild genetically derived traits can give ...... Over his population

Survival/reproductive

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If organism is a better survivor, more gametes will make it into

Next generation

59

Those organisms less advantaged may

Not survive or reproduce less

60

Natural selections strengthens the

Gene pool by eliminating less advantageous traits through lack of reproductive events

61

Taxonomy

Science of classifying and naming organisms

62

Classification by taxonomy is done by...

DNA and protein analysis, comparing embryos, fossil record, comparing internal and external body structures

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Classifies from largest to smallest

Domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species

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In domain or kingdom there can be

Millions of different organisms

65

In a species there can be

One type of organism

66

What defines a species

Common characteristics and ability to breed successfully with other members of species (biological species concept)

67

Phylogenetics

Study of evolutionary relationships

68

Biologists use many factors to determine relatedness like

Structure, reproductive patterns, embryo logical or larval development, fossils, behavior or DNA /RNA

69

All compounds are

Molecules but not all molecules are compounds

70

Respiration uses what and what are the by products

Oxygen, carbon dioxide and water

71

What is it called when inorganic are turned into complex organic molecules

Carbon dioxide fixation