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Flashcards in Chapter 8 Deck (61):
1

How many species and how many marine , fish are the ..... Vertebrates

24,000, 15,000, oldest and largest

2

How much of the vertebrate species are fish

1/2

3

Agnatha are known as the.... Fish , circular mouth with rows of teeth in ..... What type of body? What do they lack and what two types

Jawless
Rings
Long cylindrical
Paired fins and scales
Lampreys and hagfish

4

How many species of hagfish and how many marine

20 all

5

What do hagfish feed on , live on , protect themselves ?

Dead and dying fish and marine mammals
Marine burrows in soft sediment
Large amounts of mucous from glands in skin

6

Lamprey how many species and what water do they live in, adults go where for breeding and do they live after breeding

30
Freshwater and marine
Go to freshwater to breed then die

7

How do lampreys eat

On living fish by rasping into sides with sucker like mouth and consuming blood tissue and body fluids

8

Advancements in Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes

Efficient gills
Scales
Paired fins
Variety of jaw and feeding types
Lateral line and sensory organs
Streamlined body

9

Are marine fish all vertebrates ? If so what types

Yes , bone and cartilage

10

Chondrichthyes, species , things in this group, skeleton made of what, what kind of jaws, what kind of scales

1000
Shark, Rays, skates
Cartilage
Movable
Placoid

11

How many gill slits, spiracles do what?, and what do male species have that help in copulation

5-7
Help them breathe when they aren't swimming
Claspers extensions of the anal fin

12

Details about sharks: primarily live in what water, but some go up mouths of river to?, I. Addition to lateral Line sharks have what organ ?, this allows them to do what

Marine, freshwater
Lorenzini: detect electrical current , allows them to detect prey that is hidden

13

Sharks posses how many dorsal fins , what are the different kinds of reproduction, how many species, what type of eater

2
Vivipary:live birth
Ovipary:Lay egg cases
Ovovipipary: egg hatches inside
350
Carnivorous, planktonic

14

Rays always have ....birth, pectoral fins flattened into ? And their bodies are flattened how?, how many gill slits and where are they located ,

Wings
Dorsoventrally
5 on underside

15

Rays spend much of their time on the bottom which is another word for?, teeth are ?, in sting ray there is a ? At the base of the tail that is activated when?, electric rays have organs that?

Demersal
Large flattened teeth
Spine with venom
Step on or make contact with
Produce electricity on either side of the head

16

What is different from rays and skates

Fleshy tail with no spine on it
Always lay egg cases , with embryo that develops for weeks to months

17

What is the same in rays and skates

Wings, dorsalventrally flattened
Demersal

18

Ratfish: how many species, mostly are ...water,how many pairs of gills slits , feed on?, what kind of tail, what makes them different from others in the group

30
Deep
1 pair covered by flap of skin
Heterocercal
Fin rays

19

Ratfishes are also known as

Chimera

20

Osteichthyes: how many species , gills used for what and what do they have, what kind of jaws, what kind of tail

23,000
Respiration, operculum
Hinged
Homocercal: two lobes of equal size and forward thrusts

21

Bony fish: scales?, what does operculum do?, lateral line used in, swim bladder?,

Ctenoid, cycloid
Provides protection for gills,
Sensory capacity, communication
Buoyancy control

22

What kind of coloration do almost all bony fish have ?

Countershading, dorsal is dark ventral is light, blends in with environment so if predator sees them from above or below they blend

23

Slower swimming fish have what type of coloration

Disruptive, bars or stripes
Cryptic to blend in

24

What do circular patterns neared the caudal fin do ? Warning coloration?

Confuse predators who normally attack the head first
If he is attacked on caudal fin he can get away with minor damage
Colors to show poison

25

Streamlined fish include ? Which allows for very little flexibility except in?

Tuna, billfish
Caudal

26

What is the area just before the tail of streamlined fish and what does it do

Caudal peduncle , allows for muscles to concentrate in this area allowing for greater thrust

27

Angelfish are the opposite of streamlined fish because

Their fins are feather like for lots of flexibility

28

Stone fish and toad fish look like what?

Rocks or scenery

29

Fish exhibit what kind of swimming pattern, what drives this swimming pattern,

S shaped
Myomeres

30

Since swim bladder is absent in shark what do they have instead, what happens when they stop swimming

Lipid rich liver
They sink , also no lift when swimming

31

How are sharks aided in lift

Position and stiffness of pectorals

32

What are the pectorals used for in bony fish , in smaller fish what kind of movement is aided by pectorals

Flexible and maneuverability
Forward

33

In other species fins may be modified for ...... And this means the fins will not

Camouflage
Allow for significant movement

34

Is the construction of the gill the same for all fish? Gill arch, gill rakers, gill filaments , lamella

Yes
Supports entire structure
On forward surface of gill arch, modified for food capture in plankton
Behind gill arch
Increase surface area for gas exchange

35

What takes place on gill surfaces

Like lungs in human exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide

36

What does mouth structure reveal

Dietary preferences

37

The beak adaptation is seen in?, and allows fish to do what, what mouth adaptation does butterfly fish have, barracuda uses ?

Parrotfish, used to scrape algae off of other organisms
Long tube mouth to feed in corals
Long rows of sharp teeth and wide mouth to capture prey

38

Position of mouth is important yes or no?, forward facing mouth is good for, downward is good for

Yes
Chase down prey
fish that feed at bottom

39

Digestion of food in fish is completed with

Stomach,intestine, (with cloaca or anus), liver, pyloric caeca, pancreas

40

The stomach of a fish is structured like

A human stomach

41

What do the liver, pancreas, intestine, and pyloric caeca do to aid in digestion

Secrete digestive enzymes

42

Intestines of carnivorous v. Herbivorous

Short and straight
Long and coiled , because harder to process so stay longer

43

Fish have a .... Chambered heart, where does blood return for oxygenation

2
Gill filaments

44

Oxygen and carbon dioxide will .... Through thin membranes either in the ????

Diffuse
Gills or tissues

45

Osmoregulation is?, fish have a tendency to gain... And lose....,

Term given to the process of managing internal water, solute balance
Salutes , water

46

How have fish performed osmoregulation

Swallow seawater then expel in digestive process
Pass very little urine
Urine is hugely concentrated with salutes and less with water

47

Cartilaginous fish keep the same .......... How?

Blood concentration as seawater
Keeping urea in system
No solute so gained

48

Fish posses what for smell , where are tastebuds located?, what changes for the fishes eyes

Olfactory sacs
Mouth, lips, barbells, skin
The position of the lens

49

In sharks the eye is covered by a

Nictitating membrane that covers the eye to protect from predators

50

Fish rely heavily on the ......line system , series of ..... And......lined with what to detect what

Lateral
Pores, canals .... Neuromast , vibrations
Predator, prey, or position

51

The inner ears are set in what? With what kind of cells

Fluid filled canals , sensory cells

52

Fish also detect body positions changes through ?

Otoliths that rest on sensory hairs , (find age)

53

Schooling makes it possible for a small group of fish to appear? It makes it harder for a predator to? Many fish school as? How many species do this as adults

Larger
Attack one fish
Juveniles
4000

54

How do fish maintain their territories, some examples , do fights occur often

Posturing
Raised fins, open mouth , darting
No rarely

55

Anadromous v. Catadromous

Salmon lamprey sturgeon, live in saltwater but migrate to fresh for reproductive purposes
American eel freshwater then migrate to salt

56

What controls development of eggs and sperm?, what cues the release of sex hormones

Sex hormones
Water temp. , day length, tide cycles, NOT full moons

57

What is the most common form of reproduction

Broadcast spawning

58

What two types of hermaphrodites are there

Simultaneous: same time -more rare
Sequential : separate

59

Protandry v protogyny + examples , what are the cues for these changes

Male then female: clown fish
Female then male: parrot fish
Social structure or environment

60

Parthenogenic

Young develop directly from un fertilized eggs of the female, no male DNA required , clones of mom

61

What indicated readiness of reproduction

Color changes or body structure changes , intricate behaviors , helps ensure reproduction