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Flashcards in Chapter 10 Deck (37):
1

What does ecology effect

Interactions and distribution

2

Definition of community

All populations of an organism living in a Defined territory

3

Habitat

The physical place where an organism lives

4

Niches

Resources, biotic and abiotic, an organism uses for survival, growth and reproduction

5

Population demand specific what to survive ?, when do these things affect the population ?, what are they called

Resources
When they are in short supply
Limiting resources

6

Limiting resources include but are not limited to

Light
Nutrients
Space (habitat)
Oxygen and a carbon dioxide
Inorganic compounds

7

Even if open organism can obtain a limiting resources there is still a ? That any habitat can support. This is known as?, as population becomes more crowded growth rate will ?

Maximum number of organisms
Tarring capacity
Decrease

8

Population when unchecked leads to ?

Exponential growth

9

Three ways species interact

Competition
Symbiosis- work with each other
Predator prey interactions -eat each other

10

Competition occurs when organisms have to fight with each other over ? What are two types of competition ?

Limiting resources
Intraspecific- within species
Inter specific- other species

11

An organisms can use a resource at the ... Of another organisms which results in what? Poorer competitions then?

Expense
Reduced ability to survive or reproduce
Die out

12

Possible outcomes of inter specific competition?

One individual excludes the other -principle of competitive solution
They coexist- resource partitioning

13

Fundamental niche v. Realized niche , which one may be different and why

All resources a species is capable of using
All the resources a species actually uses in a community
Realized niche because of interactions with competitors

14

Resource partitioning , this can lead to what?

Competition species may coexist if they use the same resources in a different way or at a different time
Reduction in individual populations

15

Three types of symbiosis

Mutualism: both species benefit
Commensalism p: one species benefits with no apparent affect on the other
Parasitism: one species benefits and harms the other

16

Definition of ecology

Interaction between organisms and their environment

17

A symbiotic relationship where they can survive without each other is , they cannot survive without one another. S,Allen is knows as and larger is knows as

Facultative symbiosis
Obligate symbiosis
Symbionts, host

18

Prey have adaptations that help them not getting eating are

Mimicry
Camouflage
Warning coloration

19

Benthos
Sessile
Nekton
Pelagic
Plankton

This that live on the bottom
Those that are attached to the bottom
Those that swim well enough oppose currents
Those that live up in the water column
Those that swim weakly or not at all

20

Two types of plankton

Phytoplankton zooplankton

21

What zones are benthic animals divided by

Depth of the benthic zones
Intertidal - between high and low tide (exposed once a day and give in NC)
Subtidal - always submerged below low tide level

22

All ecosystems require a constant ? Chemicals and nutrient are.. In an ecosystem

Input of energy
Cycled

23

How does energy flow through an ecosystem ?, what is this determined by

From non-living to living between organisms and back
Trophic structure (relates to feeding )

24

Is all of the energy stored by individuals at one Trophic level available to the next ? How much is transferred to the next level

No energy needs take up most of the energy created or consumed
10% (5-20)

25

Food chains rarely extend beyond four Trophic levels except in the ocean Community why?

There is more biomass at the bottom- primary producer level
System can support more secondary consumers

26

What is gross primary production , what is net primary production

Total amount of primary production
Organic matter left over after primary producers meet their own needs (base)

27

What is standing stock

Total amount of phytoplankton in the water

28

What is required for primary producers to create organic molecules

Carbon dioxide

29

What else is needed for organic compounds and must be cycled through the ecosystem , nitrogen is fixed by what , what is the most important form

Phosphorus and nitrogen
Cyanobacteria, bacteria, archaea
Nitrate

30

Phosphorus enters through what

Rivers as phosphate

31

Certain elements or compounds taken up by organisms cannot?, what happens as a result?, what are some examples

Metabolized or excreted
They bioaccumulate and each toxic levels
Heavy metals, non biodegradable pesticides, toxins produced by organisms

32

What is biomagnification

When the effects of bio accumulated materials are magnified through the food we

33

Pelagic zone can be divided into what zones

Epipelagic
Mesopelagic
Bathypelagic, abyssopelagic, hadopelagic

34

Epipelagic- extends from? Plenty of sunlight available for

Waters surface to 200 m, primary production

35

Mesopelagic - extends from ? Sunlight is ? Sometimes referred to as ?

Lower limit of epipelagic to about 1000 m
Not plentiful however research shows some primary production occurs but very reduced

36

Bathy, abysso, hado- are what zones ? Extend how far down

Deep sea
Bathy-4,000
Abysso-6,000
Hado- in trenches : anything below 6,000

37

Where do they feed ?

I'm bathy