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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (51):
1

They are... For some portion of life cycle and all life cycles include a period of ..... Development

Motile, embryonic

2

Radial symmetry

Round, equal parts radiate from central point

3

Bilateral symmetry

Can be divided into left and right halves that are more or less equal

4

Asymmetrical

No symmetry like sponge

5

Porifera also known as

The sponges

6

Sponges movement: all are ....

Sessile meaning non motile and attached to hard substrate

7

Numerous tiny pores that allow water to pass through sponge are? Which in turn allows them to.... Feed. This water flow is essential for what?

Ostia, filter
Carrying waste away from cells and carry gametes

8

Characteristics of Porifera: symmetry, mostly?, they have what capabilities

Asymmetry
Marine
Regeneration

9

Types of cells in sponges , what creates the water current? What do the collars do?

Choanocytes (collar cells) which line interior canals
Flagella
Trap food particles

10

Structural support of sponges: spongin and spicules

Support protein
Support structure made of silica or calcium carbonate

11

Modes of reproduction for sponges , most sponges are ?

Asexual budding or sexual where sponge releases sperm to be picked up by nearby sponge
Hermaphroditic (both male and female parts)

12

Cnidarians also known as

Stinging animals

13

Cnidarians symmetry?, mostly?, two body forms?, two tissue layers?

Radial because of individual polyps
Marine
Medusa: free floating transported by currents and mouth and tentacles face down
Polyp: sessile, mouth and tentacles up
Epidermis covers body
Gastrodermis lines internal body for digestion

14

What gives cnidarian so their sting?

Cnidocytes (stinging cells) with nematocysts capsules on tentacles , for protection and feeding

15

Cnidarian so digestive system is?

Incomplete , sac like with only mouth , 1 way

16

Reproduction in cnidarians

Sexual: medusa stage with epidermal gonads
Zygotes develop into plan ulna that settle on the ground and forms a colony which produces new medusas
OR
Asexual: polyps by budding

17

Scyphozoa (a.k.a ?) , phyla?, stage ? , all? , movement? ,

True jellyfish
Medusa only forms polyp in reproductive life
Marine
Rhythmic contractions and can't fight against prevailing water currents
Powerful stings

18

Classification of cnidarians: Anthozoa (a.k.a ?) , stage of cnidarian?, corals secrete?, what kind of algae?, all?

Corals, sea whips , sea pansy, anemones
Colonial polyps lack medusa stage
Calcium carbonate house
Symbiotic algae within body tissue = zooxanthallae
Marine

19

Classification of cnidarians: Hydrozoa , what is stage?, hat is unusual species?, both ... And ....?

Polyp forms with medusa
Physalia : colony of polyps carried by gas filled float
Freshwater and marine

20

Cnidarians ctenophores also known as

Comb jellies

21

Flatworms consist of what ?, some are .... And others are...., they have a ... Brain which is?, how many tissue layers ?, symmetry?

Flukes, tapeworms, turbellarians
Parasitic, free living
First brain: clusters of nervous tissue in head
3 distinct
Bilateral

22

Turbellarians: eating?, what do they have present to help determine light and dark patterns ?, size?, color?, NOT ? When it comes to reproduction they are ?

Carnivores free living
Eye spots
Small
Striking color patterns
Nudibranchs
Hermaphrodites

23

General characteristics of all invertebrates: multi or uni? Heterotrophic or autotrophic? Require ..... For .....respiration?

Multicellular, heterotrophic, oxygen aerobic

24

Flukes: phyla?, in terms of eating they are all?, what do they have to attach to blood vessels?, what are the host of the adult fluke?, what is the host for the larval stage?

Parasitic
Suckers
Vertebrates
Shell fish or fish

25

Flatworm tapeworm: in terms of eating they are?, what do they have as suckers and hooks, what does the specialized cuticle surrounding it do?, they have no?, where are adults found in?, where are larval found?

Parasitic
Scolex
Allows for absorption of nutrients
Digestive system
Vertebrates
Vertebrates and invertebrates

26

Ribbon worms: where do they prefer to live?, explain digestive system, what is long fleshy tube used to catch prey?, one species reaches length of... Making it what?

Shallow coastal water
Complete mouth and anus
Proboscis
100 ft. Longest invertebrates

27

Annelids (a.k.a?) , where do they live? , well developed?, segmented both... And ....., symmetry?, what are setae and what are they useful for? (Except in which species?)

Segmented worms
Saltwater, fresh water, or moist terrestrial
Nervous system with brain
Internally and externally
Bilateral
Bristles like structures that extend from side which help it stay in place
Except in leeches

28

Sand worm, polychaete means?

Multiple setae

29

polychaete phyla?, are the .... Group of Annelids, nearly exclusively ?, some build... Tubes or tubes of?, when it comes to eating some are.... And others are ?

Largest and most diverse
Marine, some in murky freshwater
Calcareous , sticky protein
Carnivorous, deposit feeders

30

oligochaetes: phyla?, where do they live?,the marine species are like terrestrial because why?, mainly found in?, have fewer what?

Terrestrial
They burrow in sediments where they are deposit feeders
Shallow coastal waters
Setae

31

Pogonophorans phyla?, (a.k.a?) lack a ?, largely restricted to live in the?, range in size from 4in-7in

Bearded worms
Digestive system
Deep sea
4-7

32

Sipunculans phyla?, (a.k.a?) , all ... Found in what habitat?, up segmented bodies posses what?, normally burrow in what? How do they eat

Peanut worms
Marine, shallow coastal waters
Retractable multi lobed or tentacle anterior used for feeding
Soft sediments
Deposit feeder

33

Mollusk have what kind of bodies?, what is mantle used for ? She'll is made of ?, how do they eat?, well developed ?, what do they use for grazing

Soft , head muscular foot visceral mass
Waste disposal, sensory reception, respiration, it secretes it
Calcium carbonate
Deposit feeders, carnivores or radula to scrape algae
Nervous system
Radula

34

chitin phyla?, dorsal shell of?, ventral ...and....?, many graze on?

8 plates
Muscular foot and mouth with radula
Algae and small animals in intertidal zone

35

Bivalves are a type of?, examples, two shells are called?, oldest part of the shell is called the?, what secures the shells together?, water is circulated with?, gills are for?, they attach to substrate via?

Molluscs
Clams oysters scallops mussels
Valves
Umbo
Adductor muscles
Siphons
Respiration and food gathering
Byssal threads
No radula or head

36

Largest class of mollusk is called what?, how many species ?, what does their name , what is the shell?, there is no shell on what type ?

Gastropods
75,000
Bellyfooted
Coiled
Sea slugs (nudibranchs)

37

Cephalopods are what ?, examples?, why are they fast swimming?, well developed?, what covers body?, what do they use to eat?, where is their shell?, some octopuses have ...bites?,what does ink sac do?, what is the modified shell called

Molluscs
Squid, octopus, nautilus , cuttlefish
Water jet propulsion
Eyes
Thick mantle
Beak like jaws and radula
Internal or absent
Toxic
Allow to escape from predators
Pen

38

Arthropods how many species?, most in what species?, how much percent on earth?, what kind of exoskeleton?, what kind of appendages?, sections divided into 1.,2.,3.? Specialized segmentation a means what?, specialized eye and sensory organs gives them ?

1 million
Crustaceans
75%
Chitin , external
Jointed
Head thorax abdomen
They combine for specific functions
Wide angle vision

39

How do Arthropods do gas exchange?, how do they eat?, how do they reproduce?, what can females do with spermicide, what complex behaviors do they have?

Gills
Filter feeders, carnivores scavengers
Store it until a later time
Mating rituals

40

Crustaceans are what type of animal?, what do they have two of?, head and thorax are fused together which is called?, large array of appendages for what?, examples?

Arthropods
Attenae
Cephalothorax
Specialized for different functions
Copepoda, barnacles, amphipods, Isopoda, crab, shrimp, lobster

41

Horseshoe crabs are what? How many pairs of legs and in males what are they used for?, are females bigger than males?, where do they lay eggs?, where do they find food?

Arthropods
5 and reproduction
Bigger
On beaches
Near shore

42

Echinodermata have ... Skin?, do they have an endoskeleton, water vascular system with what type of feet for movement?, symmetry in adults and symmetry in larvae?, nervous system is ?, can they regenerate ?, exclusively?

Spiny
Yes
Tube
Radial, bilateral
Decentralized , no brain , any portion of the body leads
Yes
Marine

43

Sea stars are what phyla ?, how do they move?, they have a central? And how many multiples of feet?, internal organs extend through....?, what type of plates are loosely embedded?, carnivore types are?

Echinoderms
Tube feet
Disc
5
Entire body
Calcium carbonate
Shellfish and coral

44

Brittle stars are types of?, internal organs restricted to?, tube feet don't have? And used to feed on?

Echinoderms
Central disc
Suckers
Detritus and small animals

45

Sea urchins, sea biscuits, sand dollars are types of what?, what are their spines like?, rigid plates fuse into ?, where is their mouth?, where is their anus?, they have a ... Mouth for grazing, what do they feed on?

Echinoderms
Elongated and movable
Test
Bottom
Top
Biting mouth
Detritus and and encrusting organisms

46

Crinoids are what phyla and what are they represented by?, sea lilies are? While feather stars are?, what do they use to catch food ?

Echinoderms
Sea lilies and feather stars
Sessile
Mobile
Mucous net

47

Sea cucumbers are what phyla ? , ...rows of..feet all on one side, plates are loosely embedded in?, how do they eat?, will their internal organs grow back after evisceration and why?

Echinoderms
5,2
Thick skin
Deposit feeders
Yes because they regenerate

48

Chordata consists of what two groups and what else?, lancelets are the only one that shows what?

Lancelot and tunicates plus amphibians , reptiles, reptiles, birds and mammals
Posses all features as adult

49

What is a nerve chord in Chordata, what is the support nerve cord?, they have a muscular?, post anal?, ventral? Do they above gill slits?

Notochord
Tubular
Pharynx
Tail
Heart
Yes

50

Tunicates are what phyla ?, what are they commonly called?, why are they called that?, the larvae has chord at characteristics that are not?, adults normally live? What kind of reproduction

Echinodermata
Sea squirts
Because they are filter feeders and take in incurrent of siphon then squirt out excurrent of siphon
Seen in adults only pharynx
On hard substrate like boats dock etc.
Mass

51

Lancelets are what phyla?, body shows segmented ?, noto chord is attached to what?, gills are used for... Instead of respiration, posses all chordate features as an?

Echinoderms
Muscle tissue
Muscle
Filter feed
Adult