Chapter 1: Cells, Life, and Homeostasis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1: Cells, Life, and Homeostasis Deck (29):
1

Membrane-enclosed, basic, replicable unit of living things.

Cell

2

Fluid mosaic lipid bilayer that surrounds a cell, separating the cytoplasm on the inside from the extracellular environment on the outside.

Plasma membrane

3

Ability to allow the movement of some substances but not of others, particularly across membranes

Selective Permeability

4

Protein-based catalyst.

Enzyme

5

Amino acid-based polymeric substance that is found in association with lipid bilayers.

Membrane Protein

6

The liquid volume of a cell that is found immediately interior to the plasma membrane.

Cytoplasm

7

Multi-molecular, including multi-protein, sub-cellular machine.

Organelle

8

Double-layered membrane-associated structure containing the chromosomes of eukaryotic organisms, part of the endomembrane system.

Cell Nucleus

9

The site of cellular respiration in eukaryotic cells.

Mitochondria

10

Material found between animal cells, supplying both cushioning to tissues and resistance to tearing.

Extracellular Matrix

11

Cells making up the same organism having dissimilar functions and appearances despite being genetically identical.

Cellular Differentiation

12

The idea that living systems, in order to survive and prosper, must control within relatively narrow ranges various physical, chemical, and physiological parameters associated with their bodies.

Homeostasis

13

A system for which change occurs but no net change occurs, whether or not that lack of net change requires an ongoing input of energy.

Steady State

14

All of the chemical reactions that take place within an organism.

Metabolism

15

Chemical reactions associated with organisms that break substances down to yield readily usable forms of energy.

Catabolism

16

Chemical reactions associated with organisms that are energy requiring and which build molecules up.

Anabolism

17

Specialized amino-acid based polymers within cells and bodies that provide important functions other than participating in chemical reactions.

Structural protein

18

Movement of materials such as into and out of cells.

Membrane transport

19

Nonsolid aspects of bodies that are found outside of cells and which are contained within the integumentary system.

Extracellular fluid

20

Nonsolid aspects of bodies that are found outside of cells, within the integumentary system, and other than that making up blood and lymph.

Interstitial fluid

21

The state that a system tends to achieve especially in the absence of external input.

Equilibrium

22

The normal level of a given homeostatic parameter.

Set point

23

The idea that homeostasis actually consists of ranges in conditions that also can vary non-pathologically depending on circumstances.

Dynamic constancy

24

The tendency for perturbations of systems away from a given state to be resisted.

Negative feedback

25

The tendency for perturbations of systems away from a given state to be amplified.

Positive feedback

26

Energy consumption observed by an organism that is at rest and otherwise not participating in any extraneous activities.

Basal metabolic rate

27

Particularly shorter-term changes that organisms display that serve to enhance organism functionality especially in response to new environmental conditions.

Physiological adaptation

28

Contribution of multiple interacting systems to the maintenance of homeostasis.

Integrated functioning

29

Detection of changes by bodies thus leading to behavioral, physiological, or morphological change in body functioning.

Responsiveness