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Flashcards in Exam 4 Deck (87):
1

Oxygen, nutrient, waste and also heat-carrying circulatory fluid associated with closed circulatory systems in animals.

Blood

2

Cell-enclosed tubes within which circulating fluids pass both from and to an associated heart.

Blood vessel

3

Cellular lining of blood vessels.

Endothelium

4

Blood vessel carrying blood away from the heart.

Artery

5

Small diameter blood vessels that immediately precede capillaries in circulation.

Arteriole

6

Smallest of blood vessels across which the oxygen, nutrients, wastes, carbon dioxide, and the water solution making up blood can readily cross.

Capillary

7

Valves found at the start of the smallest of blood vessels that control blood flow particularly in response to oxygen needs of affected tissues.

Precapillary sphincter

8

Blood vessel carrying blood towards the heart.

Vein

9

The small diameter blood vessels that immediately follow capillaries in circulation.

Venules

10

Blood flow that goes from the heart to the lungs and then back to the heart

Pulmonary circulation

11

Drained interstitial fluid on its way to return via vessels to the blood.

Lymph

12

Route by which interstitial fluid drains from tissues to return to blood.

Lymphatic vessel

13

The liquid portion of blood.

Plasma

14

Blood protein involved structurally in blood clotting.

Fibrinogen

15

Blood proteins that serve to maintain the osmotic balance of blood.

Albumins

16

Proteins found in blood involved in transport as well as immune functions as antibodies.

Globulins

17

Naturally occurring non-proteinaceous anticoagulant added to blood to prevent clotting.

Heparin

18

The liquid portion of blood minus fibrinogen.

Serum

19

Cells along with cell-like structures found in blood.

Formed elements

20

Oxygen-carrying formed elements that circulate in some abundance within blood.

Red blood cells

21

Alternative name for red blood cells.

Erythrocytes

22

Protein found in red blood cells that binds to and then carries oxygen.

Hemoglobin

23

Formed elements involved in an animal's immune response.

White blood cells

24

Formed elements involved in blood clotting.

Platelets

25

Aggregations of the protein fibrin to seal larger holes that can form in blood vessels due to injury.

Blood clot

26

Blood condition associated with predisposition to cardiovascular disease even independent of cholesterol levels.

Elevated triglyceride levels

27

Means by which the blood of different individuals can be distinguished in terms of its interaction with immune systems, as employed towards matching blood donors with recipients.

ABO blood group system

28

Means by which the blood of different individuals can be distinguished in terms of its interaction with immune systems, as important particularly in terms of blood transfusion as well as carriage of fetuses by mothers who are lacking in the associated antigen.

Rh blood group system

29

Organ responsible for pumping blood.

Heart

30

Primary tissue of which hearts are composed.

Cardiac Muscle

31

Largest artery in the body, serving to feed systemic circulation.

Aorta

32

Largest vein in the body, serving to drain systemic circulation.

Vena cava

33

Major vein draining the head and the front limb or arm end of the body.

Superior vena cava

34

Major vein draining the tail and the rear limb or legs end of the body.

Inferior vena cava

35

Major pumping chamber of hearts.

Ventricle (heart)

36

Major pumping chamber of pulmonary circulation.

Right ventricle

37

Major pumping chamber of systemic circulation.

Left ventricle

38

Initial but less essential pumping chamber of hearts.

Atrium

39

Initial but less essential pumping chamber of pulmonary circulation.

Right atrium

40

Initial but less essential pumping chamber of systemic circulation.

Left atrium

41

Means by which backflow of blood is prevented during the beating of the heart.

Heart valves

42

Means by which backflow is prevented between ventricles and atria.

Atrioventricular valves (AV valves)

43

Reversible partition between the left ventricle and the left atrium of the heart.

Bicuspid valve

44

Reversible partition between the right ventricle and the right atrium of the heart.

Tricuspid valve

45

Means by which backflow is prevented between ventricles and the major arteries that they feed with blood.

Semilunar valves

46

The interior lining of the heart.

Endocardium

47

The muscular layer of the heart.

Myocardium

48

The outer, connective tissue layer making up the heart.

Epicardium

49

Double-layer connective tissue sack that encloses the heart.

Pericardium

50

Volume within animals containing the heart.

Pericardial cavity

51

Specialized cardiac muscle cells that conduct action potentials between different parts of the heart to increase the coordination of the heart's contraction.

Purkinje fibers

52

Measure of blood flow through the ventricles.

Cardiac output

53

The blood vessels that are directly responsible for supplying blood to cardiac muscle.

Coronary arteries

54

Measure of the extent to which the beating of the heart results in a pushing of the circulating fluid against especially arterial walls.

Blood pressure

55

Sudden increase in blood pressure associated with systole.

Pulse

56

Interval over which the chambers in the heart fill with blood.

Diastole

57

Minimum blood pressure recorded over a given interval during blood pressure determination.

Diastolic pressure

58

Interval over which the heart is actively pumping blood.

Systole

59

Maximum blood pressure recorded over a given interval during blood pressure determination.

Systolic pressure

60

Animal gas exchange organs of breathing.

Lungs

61

Lung-enclosing serous membranes that serve to reduce friction between lungs and associated body cavity walls.

Pleura

62

Volume within animals containing the lungs.

Pleural cavity

63

Exchange by animals of gasses with those in the air as mediated by active flow of air over specialized body tissues.

Breathing

64

Uptake of oxygen from and release of carbon dioxide to the environment by an organism.

External respiration

65

Uptake of oxygen and release of carbon dioxide within the body.

Internal respiration

66

Somewhat external air handling anatomy including the external nose, the associated nasal cavity, and the pharynx.

Upper respiratory tract

67

Anatomy associated with the warming, filtering, and moistening of air in the course of inhalation.

Nose

68

The internal volume found behind the external nose.

Nasal cavity

69

Volumes that are found within aspects of bodies, particularly air-filled spaces within bones.

Sinuses

70

The back of the mouth and nose, also known as the throat

Pharynx

71

Larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoles.

Lower respiratory tract

72

Post-pharynx cartilaginous connector to the trachea that includes the epiglottis, glottis, and vocal cords.

Larynx

73

Flap responsible for sealing the larynx during swallowing so that passage of food or water into the trachea may be avoided.

Epiglottis

74

Connective tissue associated with the larynx that serves to impart vibrations on air especially during exhalation.

Vocal cords

75

Cartilage reinforced, collapse-resistant passageway from larynx to lungs.

Trachea

76

Large tubes through which air passes within lungs.

Bronchi

77

Smaller tubes through which air passes within the lungs.

Bronchioles

78

Microscopic pouches within lungs where majority of gas exchange occurs.

Alveoli

79

Collections of microscopic pouches responsible for majority of gas exchange within lungs.

Alveolar sacs

80

Molecule that can simultaneously dissolve in both water and lipids, potentially resulting in suspension of the latter in the former.

Surfactant

81

Blood vessels that supply unoxygenated blood to the lungs.

Pulmonary arteries

82

Blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood to the heart.

Pulmonary veins

83

Means by which the rib cage is moved upward to effect inhalation.

Intercostal muscles

84

Means by which the thoracic cavity expands towards the abdominal cavity to effect inhalation.

Diaphragm

85

Amount of air entering the lungs per each inhalation or exiting the lungs per each exhalation under normal unforced conditions.

Tidal volume

86

Volume of air that is the difference between fully inflated lungs via inhalation and fully deflated lungs via exhalation.

Vital capacity

87

Cells found within the medulla oblongata of the brain stem that control the pace of breathing.

Respiratory center