Flashcards in Exam 4 Deck (87):
Oxygen, nutrient, waste and also heat-carrying circulatory fluid associated with closed circulatory systems in animals.
Cell-enclosed tubes within which circulating fluids pass both from and to an associated heart.
Cellular lining of blood vessels.
Blood vessel carrying blood away from the heart.
Small diameter blood vessels that immediately precede capillaries in circulation.
Smallest of blood vessels across which the oxygen, nutrients, wastes, carbon dioxide, and the water solution making up blood can readily cross.
Valves found at the start of the smallest of blood vessels that control blood flow particularly in response to oxygen needs of affected tissues.
Blood vessel carrying blood towards the heart.
The small diameter blood vessels that immediately follow capillaries in circulation.
Blood flow that goes from the heart to the lungs and then back to the heart
Drained interstitial fluid on its way to return via vessels to the blood.
Route by which interstitial fluid drains from tissues to return to blood.
The liquid portion of blood.
Blood protein involved structurally in blood clotting.
Blood proteins that serve to maintain the osmotic balance of blood.
Proteins found in blood involved in transport as well as immune functions as antibodies.
Naturally occurring non-proteinaceous anticoagulant added to blood to prevent clotting.
The liquid portion of blood minus fibrinogen.
Cells along with cell-like structures found in blood.
Oxygen-carrying formed elements that circulate in some abundance within blood.
Red blood cells
Alternative name for red blood cells.
Protein found in red blood cells that binds to and then carries oxygen.
Formed elements involved in an animal's immune response.
White blood cells
Formed elements involved in blood clotting.
Aggregations of the protein fibrin to seal larger holes that can form in blood vessels due to injury.
Blood condition associated with predisposition to cardiovascular disease even independent of cholesterol levels.
Elevated triglyceride levels
Means by which the blood of different individuals can be distinguished in terms of its interaction with immune systems, as employed towards matching blood donors with recipients.
ABO blood group system
Means by which the blood of different individuals can be distinguished in terms of its interaction with immune systems, as important particularly in terms of blood transfusion as well as carriage of fetuses by mothers who are lacking in the associated antigen.
Rh blood group system
Organ responsible for pumping blood.
Primary tissue of which hearts are composed.
Largest artery in the body, serving to feed systemic circulation.
Largest vein in the body, serving to drain systemic circulation.
Major vein draining the head and the front limb or arm end of the body.
Superior vena cava
Major vein draining the tail and the rear limb or legs end of the body.
Inferior vena cava
Major pumping chamber of hearts.
Major pumping chamber of pulmonary circulation.
Major pumping chamber of systemic circulation.
Initial but less essential pumping chamber of hearts.
Initial but less essential pumping chamber of pulmonary circulation.
Initial but less essential pumping chamber of systemic circulation.
Means by which backflow of blood is prevented during the beating of the heart.
Means by which backflow is prevented between ventricles and atria.
Atrioventricular valves (AV valves)
Reversible partition between the left ventricle and the left atrium of the heart.
Reversible partition between the right ventricle and the right atrium of the heart.
Means by which backflow is prevented between ventricles and the major arteries that they feed with blood.
The interior lining of the heart.
The muscular layer of the heart.
The outer, connective tissue layer making up the heart.
Double-layer connective tissue sack that encloses the heart.
Volume within animals containing the heart.
Specialized cardiac muscle cells that conduct action potentials between different parts of the heart to increase the coordination of the heart's contraction.
Measure of blood flow through the ventricles.
The blood vessels that are directly responsible for supplying blood to cardiac muscle.
Measure of the extent to which the beating of the heart results in a pushing of the circulating fluid against especially arterial walls.
Sudden increase in blood pressure associated with systole.
Interval over which the chambers in the heart fill with blood.
Minimum blood pressure recorded over a given interval during blood pressure determination.
Interval over which the heart is actively pumping blood.
Maximum blood pressure recorded over a given interval during blood pressure determination.
Animal gas exchange organs of breathing.
Lung-enclosing serous membranes that serve to reduce friction between lungs and associated body cavity walls.
Volume within animals containing the lungs.
Exchange by animals of gasses with those in the air as mediated by active flow of air over specialized body tissues.
Uptake of oxygen from and release of carbon dioxide to the environment by an organism.
Uptake of oxygen and release of carbon dioxide within the body.
Somewhat external air handling anatomy including the external nose, the associated nasal cavity, and the pharynx.
Upper respiratory tract
Anatomy associated with the warming, filtering, and moistening of air in the course of inhalation.
The internal volume found behind the external nose.
Volumes that are found within aspects of bodies, particularly air-filled spaces within bones.
The back of the mouth and nose, also known as the throat
Larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoles.
Lower respiratory tract
Post-pharynx cartilaginous connector to the trachea that includes the epiglottis, glottis, and vocal cords.
Flap responsible for sealing the larynx during swallowing so that passage of food or water into the trachea may be avoided.
Connective tissue associated with the larynx that serves to impart vibrations on air especially during exhalation.
Cartilage reinforced, collapse-resistant passageway from larynx to lungs.
Large tubes through which air passes within lungs.
Smaller tubes through which air passes within the lungs.
Microscopic pouches within lungs where majority of gas exchange occurs.
Collections of microscopic pouches responsible for majority of gas exchange within lungs.
Molecule that can simultaneously dissolve in both water and lipids, potentially resulting in suspension of the latter in the former.
Blood vessels that supply unoxygenated blood to the lungs.
Blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood to the heart.
Means by which the rib cage is moved upward to effect inhalation.
Means by which the thoracic cavity expands towards the abdominal cavity to effect inhalation.
Amount of air entering the lungs per each inhalation or exiting the lungs per each exhalation under normal unforced conditions.
Volume of air that is the difference between fully inflated lungs via inhalation and fully deflated lungs via exhalation.