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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (90):
1

Membrane-enclosed, basic, replicable unit of living things.

Cell

2

Fluid mosaic lipid bilayer that surrounds a cell, separating the cytoplasm on the inside from the extracellular environment on the outside.

Plasma membrane

3

Ability to allow the movement of some substances but not of others, particularly across membranes

Selective Permeability

4

Protein-based catalyst.

Enzyme

5

Amino acid-based polymeric substance that is found in association with lipid bilayers.

Membrane Protein

6

The liquid volume of a cell that is found immediately interior to the plasma membrane.

Cytoplasm

7

Multi-molecular, including multi-protein, sub-cellular machine.

Organelle

8

Double-layered membrane-associated structure containing the chromosomes of eukaryotic organisms, part of the endomembrane system.

Cell Nucleus

9

The site of cellular respiration in eukaryotic cells.

Mitochondria

10

Material found between animal cells, supplying both cushioning to tissues and resistance to tearing.

Extracellular Matrix

11

Cells making up the same organism having dissimilar functions and appearances despite being genetically identical.

Cellular Differentiation

12

The idea that living systems, in order to survive and prosper, must control within relatively narrow ranges various physical, chemical, and physiological parameters associated with their bodies.

Homeostasis

13

A system for which change occurs but no net change occurs, whether or not that lack of net change requires an ongoing input of energy.

Steady State

14

All of the chemical reactions that take place within an organism.

Metabolism

15

Chemical reactions associated with organisms that break substances down to yield readily usable forms of energy.

Catabolism

16

Chemical reactions associated with organisms that are energy requiring and which build molecules up.

Anabolism

17

Specialized amino-acid based polymers within cells and bodies that provide important functions other than participating in chemical reactions.

Structural protein

18

Movement of materials such as into and out of cells.

Membrane transport

19

Nonsolid aspects of bodies that are found outside of cells and which are contained within the integumentary system.

Extracellular fluid

20

Nonsolid aspects of bodies that are found outside of cells, within the integumentary system, and other than that making up blood and lymph.

Interstitial fluid

21

The state that a system tends to achieve especially in the absence of external input.

Equilibrium

22

The normal level of a given homeostatic parameter.

Set point

23

The idea that homeostasis actually consists of ranges in conditions that also can vary non-pathologically depending on circumstances.

Dynamic constancy

24

The tendency for perturbations of systems away from a given state to be resisted.

Negative feedback

25

The tendency for perturbations of systems away from a given state to be amplified.

Positive feedback

26

Energy consumption observed by an organism that is at rest and otherwise not participating in any extraneous activities.

Basal metabolic rate

27

Particularly shorter-term changes that organisms display that serve to enhance organism functionality especially in response to new environmental conditions.

Physiological adaptation

28

Contribution of multiple interacting systems to the maintenance of homeostasis.

Integrated functioning

29

Detection of changes by bodies thus leading to behavioral, physiological, or morphological change in body functioning.

Responsiveness

30

The study of the functioning of living things, especially including above the level of individual biochemical pathways or, for multicellular organisms, including above the level of the functioning of individual cells.

Physiology

31

The study of the morphology of living things, particularly the more macroscopic aspects of living things.

Anatomy

32

Cell division and cellular differentiation that results in conversion of an organism from immature or juvenile form to mature form.

Development

33

Multiple cells possessing the same origin, displaying similar functions, and often similarly located within an organism.

Tissue

34

Two or typically three layers of tissue found in early animal embryos that are the product of early cellular differentiation and specialization, and which are formed in the course of a developmental process known as gastrulation.

Primary tissues

35

Layers of cells that line surfaces, form glands, and serves as skin in animals.

Epithelial tissue

36

Groups of cells in animals specialized for contraction.

Muscle tissue

37

Groups of animal cells specialized in the conduction of information via impulses of membrane depolarization.

Nervous tissue

38

Groups of cells and often associated fibers in animals that are notable especially in terms of their association with a specialized extracellular matrix.

Connective tissue

39

Groups of similar types of animal cells that are both associated with excretion of collagen protein.

Fibrous connective tissue

40

Groups of similar types of animal cells that are associated with excretion of large amounts of collagen protein.

Dense connective tissue

41

Groups of similar types of animal cells that are associated with excretion of collagen protein and which are able to sustain fairly substantial amounts of reversible deformation.

Elastic connective tissue

42

Groups of similar types of animal cells that are associated with excretion of collagen protein and which are associated especially with a substantial amount of flexibility.

Loose connective tissue

43

Groups of similar types of animal cells that are associated with excretion of collagen protein and which provide an internal structural support to various soft organs.

Reticular connective tissue

44

Combination especially of epithelia, fibroblasts, and associated fibers.

Tissue membrane

45

The tissue that lines animal body cavities.

Serous membrane

46

Groups of cell types employed by the body to store fat.

Adipose tissue

47

Aspect of a body consisting of one or more cells that together are able to give rise to one or more specific processes.

Functional units

48

Multi-tissue, discrete structure within an organism's body that is responsible for specific processes.

Organ

49

The largest of the discrete functional units making up bodies.

Organ system

50

Contractile tissue associated with organs and mostly not under voluntary control.

Smooth muscle

51

Volume within animals containing the central nervous system.

Dorsal cavity

52

Volume within animals containing the numerous internal organs other than the brain and spinal cord.

Ventral cavity

53

Volume within animals containing the heart and lungs.

Thoracic cavity

54

Pleural cavity

Volume within animals containing the lungs.

55

Pericardial cavity

Volume within animals containing the heart.

56

Volume within animals containing the bulk of internal organs as well as the bulk of the digestive system.

Abdominal cavity

57

Stem cells

Cells that supply the body with new cells by dividing and then differentiating into more specialized cells.

58

Antimicrobial barrier often possessing viscous, moist secretions on its surface and covering most body surfaces not directly in contact with the outside environment.

Mucous membrane

59

Fibrous sheet found underlying epithelial and endothelial tissue.

Basement membrane

60

Skin as defined from the perspective of its being a tissue membrane.

Cutaneous membrane

61

Most abundant protein in mammals, connects together tissues and is the primary constituent of connective tissue.

Collagen

62

Connective tissue protein that is capable of fairly substantial stretching and contraction while exerting force towards return to its original size.

Elastin

63

Crosslinked collagen fibers that create a fine mesh that serves as connective tissue internal support of various soft internal tissues within animal bodies.

Reticulin

64

Major protein constituent of the outer layer of skin, nails, hair, reptilian scales, feathers, hooves, claws, beaks, baleen, horns including those of rhinoceros, and porcupine quills.

Keratin

65

Body barrier as displayed by vertebrate animals to microorganisms and various invertebrate animals as well as water, nutrients, and colloidal substances as found in bodies.

Skin

66

The underlying layer of the skin.

Hypodermis

67

Alternative name for hypodermis.

Subcutaneous

68

The middle layer of the skin.

Dermis

69

The outer layer of the skin.

Epidermis

70

The lower-most layer of the epidermis.

Basal stratum

71

The upper-most layer of the epidermis.

Cornified stratum

72

Cells that are responsible for generating the primary protein constituent of the cornified layer of skin as well as of various skin appendages such as hair.

Keratinocytes

73

Cells responsible for producing the major pigment associated with skin and hair.

Melanocytes

74

Common pigment associated for example with skin, hair, and eyes which serves as an absorbent of ultraviolet radiation.

Melanin

75

Single layer of tightly connected animal cells that serves as a surface covering of other tissues.

Simple epithelium

76

Multiple layers of tightly connected animal cells that serve as a surface covering of other tissues.

Stratified epithelium

77

Smooth muscles attached to hair follicles.

Arrector pili

78

Keratin-based skin appendage that is a defining characteristic of mammals.

Hair

79

Source in mammals of defining keratinized skin appendages as well as the outlet for apocrine and sebaceous glands.

Hair follicle

80

Hardened keratin-based structures found at the terminus of most primate digits.

Nails

81

Means by animals generate substances that are then released via ducts.

Exocrine gland

82

Antimicrobial as well as cooling fluid released onto the skin by certain exocrine glands.

Sweat

83

Releaser, onto the skin, of sweat.

Eccrine gland

84

Releasers of non-sebum oily materials into hair follicles and from there to the surface of our bodies.

Apocrine gland

85

Releasers of water-proofing materials into hair follicles and from there to the surface of our bodies.

Sebaceous gland

86

Lubricating, waterproofing, and antimicrobial substance secreted onto the skin of mammals.

Sebum

87

Acne vulgaris

Skin condition associated with blockage of hair follicles and sebaceous glands.

88

Boil

Deep hair follicle infection.

89

Impetigo

Contagious bacterial skin infection common especially among young children.

90

Wart

Growth-like viral infection of the skin.