Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (90):
Membrane-enclosed, basic, replicable unit of living things.
Fluid mosaic lipid bilayer that surrounds a cell, separating the cytoplasm on the inside from the extracellular environment on the outside.
Ability to allow the movement of some substances but not of others, particularly across membranes
Amino acid-based polymeric substance that is found in association with lipid bilayers.
The liquid volume of a cell that is found immediately interior to the plasma membrane.
Multi-molecular, including multi-protein, sub-cellular machine.
Double-layered membrane-associated structure containing the chromosomes of eukaryotic organisms, part of the endomembrane system.
The site of cellular respiration in eukaryotic cells.
Material found between animal cells, supplying both cushioning to tissues and resistance to tearing.
Cells making up the same organism having dissimilar functions and appearances despite being genetically identical.
The idea that living systems, in order to survive and prosper, must control within relatively narrow ranges various physical, chemical, and physiological parameters associated with their bodies.
A system for which change occurs but no net change occurs, whether or not that lack of net change requires an ongoing input of energy.
All of the chemical reactions that take place within an organism.
Chemical reactions associated with organisms that break substances down to yield readily usable forms of energy.
Chemical reactions associated with organisms that are energy requiring and which build molecules up.
Specialized amino-acid based polymers within cells and bodies that provide important functions other than participating in chemical reactions.
Movement of materials such as into and out of cells.
Nonsolid aspects of bodies that are found outside of cells and which are contained within the integumentary system.
Nonsolid aspects of bodies that are found outside of cells, within the integumentary system, and other than that making up blood and lymph.
The state that a system tends to achieve especially in the absence of external input.
The normal level of a given homeostatic parameter.
The idea that homeostasis actually consists of ranges in conditions that also can vary non-pathologically depending on circumstances.
The tendency for perturbations of systems away from a given state to be resisted.
The tendency for perturbations of systems away from a given state to be amplified.
Energy consumption observed by an organism that is at rest and otherwise not participating in any extraneous activities.
Basal metabolic rate
Particularly shorter-term changes that organisms display that serve to enhance organism functionality especially in response to new environmental conditions.
Contribution of multiple interacting systems to the maintenance of homeostasis.
Detection of changes by bodies thus leading to behavioral, physiological, or morphological change in body functioning.
The study of the functioning of living things, especially including above the level of individual biochemical pathways or, for multicellular organisms, including above the level of the functioning of individual cells.
The study of the morphology of living things, particularly the more macroscopic aspects of living things.
Cell division and cellular differentiation that results in conversion of an organism from immature or juvenile form to mature form.
Multiple cells possessing the same origin, displaying similar functions, and often similarly located within an organism.
Two or typically three layers of tissue found in early animal embryos that are the product of early cellular differentiation and specialization, and which are formed in the course of a developmental process known as gastrulation.
Layers of cells that line surfaces, form glands, and serves as skin in animals.
Groups of cells in animals specialized for contraction.
Groups of animal cells specialized in the conduction of information via impulses of membrane depolarization.
Groups of cells and often associated fibers in animals that are notable especially in terms of their association with a specialized extracellular matrix.
Groups of similar types of animal cells that are both associated with excretion of collagen protein.
Fibrous connective tissue
Groups of similar types of animal cells that are associated with excretion of large amounts of collagen protein.
Dense connective tissue
Groups of similar types of animal cells that are associated with excretion of collagen protein and which are able to sustain fairly substantial amounts of reversible deformation.
Elastic connective tissue
Groups of similar types of animal cells that are associated with excretion of collagen protein and which are associated especially with a substantial amount of flexibility.
Loose connective tissue
Groups of similar types of animal cells that are associated with excretion of collagen protein and which provide an internal structural support to various soft organs.
Reticular connective tissue
Combination especially of epithelia, fibroblasts, and associated fibers.
The tissue that lines animal body cavities.
Groups of cell types employed by the body to store fat.
Aspect of a body consisting of one or more cells that together are able to give rise to one or more specific processes.
Multi-tissue, discrete structure within an organism's body that is responsible for specific processes.
The largest of the discrete functional units making up bodies.
Contractile tissue associated with organs and mostly not under voluntary control.
Volume within animals containing the central nervous system.
Volume within animals containing the numerous internal organs other than the brain and spinal cord.
Volume within animals containing the heart and lungs.
Volume within animals containing the lungs.
Volume within animals containing the heart.
Volume within animals containing the bulk of internal organs as well as the bulk of the digestive system.
Cells that supply the body with new cells by dividing and then differentiating into more specialized cells.
Antimicrobial barrier often possessing viscous, moist secretions on its surface and covering most body surfaces not directly in contact with the outside environment.
Fibrous sheet found underlying epithelial and endothelial tissue.
Skin as defined from the perspective of its being a tissue membrane.
Most abundant protein in mammals, connects together tissues and is the primary constituent of connective tissue.
Connective tissue protein that is capable of fairly substantial stretching and contraction while exerting force towards return to its original size.
Crosslinked collagen fibers that create a fine mesh that serves as connective tissue internal support of various soft internal tissues within animal bodies.
Major protein constituent of the outer layer of skin, nails, hair, reptilian scales, feathers, hooves, claws, beaks, baleen, horns including those of rhinoceros, and porcupine quills.
Body barrier as displayed by vertebrate animals to microorganisms and various invertebrate animals as well as water, nutrients, and colloidal substances as found in bodies.
The underlying layer of the skin.
Alternative name for hypodermis.
The middle layer of the skin.
The outer layer of the skin.
The lower-most layer of the epidermis.
The upper-most layer of the epidermis.
Cells that are responsible for generating the primary protein constituent of the cornified layer of skin as well as of various skin appendages such as hair.
Cells responsible for producing the major pigment associated with skin and hair.
Common pigment associated for example with skin, hair, and eyes which serves as an absorbent of ultraviolet radiation.
Single layer of tightly connected animal cells that serves as a surface covering of other tissues.
Multiple layers of tightly connected animal cells that serve as a surface covering of other tissues.
Smooth muscles attached to hair follicles.
Keratin-based skin appendage that is a defining characteristic of mammals.
Source in mammals of defining keratinized skin appendages as well as the outlet for apocrine and sebaceous glands.
Hardened keratin-based structures found at the terminus of most primate digits.
Means by animals generate substances that are then released via ducts.
Antimicrobial as well as cooling fluid released onto the skin by certain exocrine glands.
Releaser, onto the skin, of sweat.
Releasers of non-sebum oily materials into hair follicles and from there to the surface of our bodies.
Releasers of water-proofing materials into hair follicles and from there to the surface of our bodies.
Lubricating, waterproofing, and antimicrobial substance secreted onto the skin of mammals.
Skin condition associated with blockage of hair follicles and sebaceous glands.
Deep hair follicle infection.
Contagious bacterial skin infection common especially among young children.