Chapter 6: Nervous System II: Brain, Spinal Cord, Special Senses Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6: Nervous System II: Brain, Spinal Cord, Special Senses Deck (34):
1

Animal body principal control center.

Brain

2

That aspect of the central nervous system that is rich in cell bodies while poor in myelin.

Gray matter

3

That aspect of the central nervous system that is rich in myelin while poor in cell bodies.

White matter

4

Part of the brain responsible for highest levels of integration of information.

Cerebrum

5

Primary location of gray matter representing the surface of the forebrain.

Cerebral cortex

6

Region of the hindbrain that is involved predominantly in refining the control of movement.

Cerebellum

7

Lower most portion of the brain responsible for maintaining many low level but nonetheless crucial homeostatic functions of the body.

Brainstem

8

Pons

Portion of brainstem involved primarily in connecting together other regions of the brain.

9

Medulla oblongata

The portion of the brainstem that is found immediately adjacent to the spinal cord.

10

Neurotransmitter involved, in part and crucially, in the brain's reward and motivation.

Dopamine

11

Neurotransmitter that motivates appetite, mood, and sleep as well as gut motility.

Serotonin

12

Electroencephalogram

Means of visualizing the activity of the brain by measuring the electrical activity along the scalp.

13

Primary connection in vertebrates between the brain and the rest of the body.

Spinal cord

14

Spinal cord protective covering and dominant endoskeletal support structure in most animals possessing spinal cords.

Vertebral column

15

Individual bones making up the neck, spine, sacrum, and tailbone.

Vertebrae

16

Shock absorbing connective tissue joining the ventral bodies of vertebrae.

Intervertebral disc

17

Balance, hearing, sight, smell, and taste.

Special senses

18

Sense of balance.

Equilibrioception

19

Inner ear associated means by which mammals sustain their balance.

Vestibular system

20

Three tubes found in each ear that detect the acceleration of the head.

Semicircular canals

21

Means by which changes in head position is detected such as relative to the center of the Earth.

Otolith organs

22

The site of the first step in the conversion of vibrations of sound into vibration of tissue.

Tympanic membrane

23

Means of air pressure equalization as well as drainage of the middle ear.

Eustachian tube

24

Inner ear organ which converts fluid movement that originated as sound vibrations into action potentials.

Cochlea

25

Transparent front of the eye.

Cornea

26

Location of the visual receptors of the eye.

Retina

27

Low light visual receptors of the eye.

Rods

28

Visual receptors of the eye specialized for distinguishing among colors.

Cones

29

Neural connection between the eyes and the brain.

Optic nerve

30

Perception of odors.

Olfaction

31

Proteins associated with specialized cells found on the tongue that are responsible for detecting the flavors bitter, salty, sour, sweet, and umami.

Taste receptor

32

Cataract

Loss of transparency of the lens of the eye.

33

Glaucoma

Eye disease characterized by excess pressure of the aqueous humor and blindness if left untreated.

34

Otitis media

Infection of the middle ear.