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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Stress Deck (15):

A biological, psychological, social, or chemical factor that causes physical or emotional tension, and may be a factor in the etiology of certain illnesses.



consists of three stages that describes the general reaction of the body to stress.
1 .Alarm reaction stage
2. Stage of resistance
3. Stage of exhaustion

general adaptation syndrome


during this stage, the physiological responses of the "fight or flight syndrome" are initiated.

Alarm reaction stage


The individual uses the physiological responses of the first stage as a defense in the attempt to adapt to the stressor. If adaptation occurs, the third stage is prevented or delayed. Physiological symptoms may disappear.

Stage of resistance


This stage occurs when there is a prolonged exposure to the stressor to which the body has become depleted, and the individual can no longer draw from the resources for adaptation. Physical symptoms may appear( headaches, ulcers, CAD, etc.)

Stage of exhaustion


said to occur when an individual's physical or behavioral response to any change in his or her internal or external environment results in preservation of individual integrity or timely return to equilibrium.



a stimulus arising from the internal or external environment and is perceived by the individual in a specific manner.

precipitating event


an individual's evaluation of the personal significance of the event or occurrence.

cognitive appraisal


consists of a primary appraisal and a secondary appraisal.

cognitive response


There are three different types of appraisal: irrelevant, benign-positive, and stressful

primary appraisal


is an assessment of skills, resources, and knowledge that the person possesses to deal with the situation.

secondary appraisal


these factors strongly influence whether the response is adaptive or maladaptive. They include genetic influences, past experiences, and existing conditions.

predisposing factors


occurs when an individual's physical or behavioral response to any change in his or her internal or external environment results in disruption of individual integrity or in persistent disequilibrium.



These strategies are used to manage stress they include awareness, relaxation, meditation, interpersonal communication, problem solving, pets, and music

adaptive coping strategies


the two major psychological responses to stress

anxiety and grief