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Flashcards in Personality Development Deck (39):

The combination of character, behavioral, temperamental, emotional, and mental traits that are unique to each specific individual.



Created by Freud
-Importance of early life trauma in later mental disorders
-Emotionally painful experiences motivate behaviors
-Focuses on three parts of personality: The Id, the ego, and the superego

Psychoanalytic Theory


“pleasure principle”
immediate gratification "if it feels good, do it"
Present at birth

the id


“reality principle”
Rational part of personality and works to maintain harmony between the external world, the Id and the superego
An effort is made to delay gratification and to satisfy social expectations



conscience or “perfection principle”
3-6 yr
Composed of self esteem that is developed in response to positive feedback
Conscience- culturally influenced “right and wrong”
-Violation of the superego's standards generates guilt and anxiety in the individual with a strong superego.



1. Oral stage (birth to 18 months)
2. Anal stage (18 months to 3 years)
3. Phallic stage (3 to 6 years
4. Latency stage (6 to 12 years)
5. Genital stage (13 to 20 years)

Development of the Personality: Freud


Relief from anxiety through oral gratification of needs.

1. Oral stage (birth to 18 months)


Learning independence and control,
with focus on the excretory function.

2. Anal stage (18 months to 3 years)


Identification with parent of same sex;
development of sexual identity; focus is on genital organs.

3. Phallic stage (3 to 6 years


Sexuality is repressed; focus is on relationships with same-sex peers.

4. Latency stage (6 to 12 years)


Libido is reawakened as genital organs mature; focus is on relationships with members of the opposite sex.

5. Genital stage (13 to 20 years)


the ability to recognize behaviors that assoc. with the ID, EGO, and SUPEREGO can assist in the assessment of the developmental level and planning care.

Relevance to Nursing Practice: Freud's psychoanalytic theory


-This theory was built off Freud's principles
-Early interpersonal relationships and experiences are crucial for personality development
-Anxiety – fear of emotional discomfort
-All behavior is aimed at avoiding anxiety and threats to self
-Interpersonal security- feeling with relief of anxiety
-Treatment involves challenging maladaptive behavior with emphasis on relationship issues
-Therapist as “participant observer”
-Awareness of dysfunctional patterns leads to change in behavior

Sullivan's interpersonal theory


Relationship development is a major
psychiatric nursing intervention. Knowledge about the behaviors associated with all levels of anxiety and methods for alleviating anxiety helps nurses

Relevance to nursing practice: Sullivan's interpersonal theory


Based on premise that human intelligence is one’s ability to psychologically adapt to the environment

Piaget:Cognitive development


-She is considered a nursing model and created the framework for psychodynamic nursing.
-Application of interpersonal theory
to nurse patient care
-Focuses on interpersonal relationships which can be seen as learning experiences for nurses



Peplau’s model provides nurses with a framework to interact with clients, many of whom are fixed in, or because of illness have regressed to, an earlier level of development. Using nursing roles 18 suggested by Peplau, nurses may facilitate client learning of what has not been learned in earlier experiences

Relevance to Nursing Practice: Peplau


Stage 1
Infant: learning to depend and communicate in order to have comfort heeds met
Stage 2
Toddlerhood-learn to delay gratification and the get satisfaction through pleasing others through delaying gratification
Stage 3
Identify oneself, learns appropriate roles and behaviors by perceiving expectations of others
Stage 4
Late childhood- develop skills of participation, including compromise, competition, and coorperation

Peplau's four stages of personality development


-Hierarchy of needs approach
-Basic needs must be met before progressing to higher needs
-Focuses on positive, feeling safe
-Having someone care

Motivational psychotherapy (Maslow)


-Based on influences of social processes on the development of the personality
-Describes 8 stages from infancy to older adulthood
-Each stage consists of central age-appropriate tasks
-Resolution of each stage can be positive or negative

Erikson's psychosocial theory


includes all the memories that remain within an individual's awareness. It is the smallest of the three categories. events and experiences are easily recalled and considered to be within one's conscious mind.
Examples- phone numbers, birthdays, what you ate for lunch



includes all memories that may have been forgotten or are not in present awareness, but with attention can be readily recalled.
It helps to suppress unpleasant or nonessential memories from consciousness.
ex- phone numbers or addresses that were once known



includes all memories that one is unable to bring to conscious awareness. It consists of unpleasant or nonessential memories that have been repressed and can be retrieved only through therapy hypnosis or with certain substances that alter awareness.



the process by with the id invests energy into an object in attempt to achieve gratification.
example- an individual who instinctively turns to alcohol to relieve stress.

Cathexis (Freud)


the use of psychic energy by the ego and the superego to control id impulses.
-example- the alcoholic would attempt to not drink by rational thinking "I have ulcers from drinking too much. I will call my AA support group"

anti-cathexis (Freud)


the fulfillment of all requirements associated with an individual's physiochemical environment.
-Food, water, oxygen, rest, sexual expression.. etc

Satisfaction of needs (Sullivan)


the feeling associated with relief from anxiety. When all needs have been met, and one experiences a sense of well being.

Interpersonal security (Sullivan)


A collection of experiences or security measures to protect against anxiety. Three components are "The good me" "The bad me" and the "not me"

Self- system (Sullivan)


Birth-18 months
Develop a basic trust in the mothering figure and learn to generalize it to others

trust vs. mistrust


Early childhood (18 months-3 years)
gain some self control and independence within the environment

autonomy vs. Shame and doubt


School age (6-12yrs.)
To achieve a sense of self-confidence by learning, competing, performing success fully, and receiving recognition from significant others, peers, acquaintances.

industry vs. inferiority


Adolescence (12-20)
To integrate the tasks mastered in the previous stages into a secure sense of self institution, or creative effort.

identity vs. role confusion


Young adulthood(20-30)
to form an intense lasting relationship or commitment to another person, cause, institution, or creative effort.

intimacy vs. isolation


Old age (65-death)
To review one's life and derive meaning from both positive and negate events, while achieving a positive sense of self worth.

Ego integrity vs. despair


Adulthood (30-65)
to achieve the life goals established for oneself, while also considering the welfare of future generations.

Generativity vs. Stagnation


Based on separation/individuation of the infant to mother or primary caregiver . Made of up three phases
1. The autistic phase
2. the symbiotic phase
3.seperation- individuation

Theory of Object Relations(Mahler)


Occurs in stage 2 of Mahlers theory of object relations.
It is a type of "psychic fusion" of mother and child. The child views the self as an extension of the mother, but with a developing awareness that it is she who fulfills his or her every need.



-Uses Piaget's theory of cognitive development and applied it to moral development.
Progression from black-and-white thinking to complex, content-dependent decision making in moral issues

Kohler's moral development theory


being able to understand one's own behavior, to help others identify felt difficulties, and to apply principles of human relations to the problems that arise at all levels of experience.

Psychodynamic nursing