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Flashcards in Culture chapter 4 Deck (23):

describes a particular society's entire way of living, encompassing shared patterns of belief, feeling , and knowledge that guide people's conduct and are passed down from generation to generation.



relates to people who identify with each other because of a shared heritage.



refers to the innate tendency to own space The need is only met if the individual has control of a space, can establish rules for that space, and can defend the space against invasion or misuse of others.



refers to the number of people within a given environmental space, can influence interpersonal interaction.



the means by which various cultures use space to communicate.



Minorities living within a dominant group lose the characteristics that made them different. It involves acquiring knowledge and internalizing values.

Cultural assimilation (acculturation)


The feelings a person experiences when placed in a different culture

Culture shock


-Value territory and personal space
-Since technology became widespread less emphasis is on cohesiveness of family.
-high divorce rate
-fast paced lifestyle

Northern European Americans


-Smaller sense of personal space
-family oriented
-may not visit a doctor, but could believe in folk medicine
-unlikely to value punctuality and time
-more prone to HTN, sickle cell, diabetes, and alcohol

African Americans


- View touch as aggressive( no handshakes, they do not touch dead person)
-Traditions are passed down
-very present-time oriented, they do not focus on the future.
-time is casual
-They use a shaman
-Risks of illness includes alcoholism, diabetes, TB,heart disease, pneumonia, suicide, influenza.
-Eat mostly meat and corn

Native Americans


the pioneer of transcultural or cross-cultural nursing

Madeleine Leininger


“A formal area of study and practice in nursing focused upon comparative holistic cultural care, health, and illness patterns of individuals and groups with respect to differences and similarities in cultural values, beliefs, and practices with the goal to provide culturally congruent, sensitive, and competent nursing care to people of diverse cultures

Transcultural Nursing


-Touching is unacceptable
- down casting of eyes is a sign of respect
- personal and social spaces are larger than Americans
-loyalty is to the family
-Misbehavior is dishonor to the family
-Some believe in yin and yang
-Obesity is uncommon
-Milk is seldom consumed
-risk of alcohol dependance is low ( drinking causes unpleasant symptoms in some people)

Asian/ Pacific Islander Americans


-Touch is a common form of communication
-very group oriented
-typically Catholic
-male dominated
-Curandero or Curandera ( folk healer)
-not as likely to complain about pain

Latino Americans


-Very food oriented
-warm and affectionate people
-family oriented
- Man is head of household, Mother is homemaker
-The elderly are respected are are cared for by the family instead of put in nursing home

Western European Americans


-Do not allow male HCP to touch certain parts of females
-Direct eye contact is impolite and aggressive
-punctuality is not taken seriously except for business
-Men are dominate and women are subordinate
-GI problems are common
-Eating and drinking at the same time is considered unhealthy
-daily prayers are important

Arab Americans


-Believe in the torah
-many hold advanced degrees
-very health conscious
-circumsized on the 8th day of life
-Tay-Sach's disease, Gaucher's disease, and familial dysautonomia, IBD, colorectal cancer, breast, and ovarian cancer, agranulocytosis
-high rate of SE of anti-psychotic clozapine
-Only eat meat that has been slaughtered in a kosher manner
-Can't eat meat and dairy together

Jewish Americans


-Develop cultural self-awareness
-Develop cultural knowledge
-Accommodate cultural practices in healthcare
-Respect culturally based family roles
-Avoid mandating change
-Seek cultural assistance

Guidelines to Providing Cultural Competent Care


the human quality that gives meaning and sense of purpose to an individual's existence. Serves as a force for interconnectedness between the self and others, the environment, and higher power.



-Health care provider should face patient
-Direct questions to patient
-Ask one question at a time, keeping it simple, short, and using specific words
-Watch patient body language
-Interpreter sits beside or behind the health care provider
-IMP: even thought the interpreter is translating the questions, the healthcare provider is obtaining the information

Communication and interpreters


the acceptance of a belief in the absence of physical or empirical evidence.



a special kind of positive expectation



a projection of one's own good feelings onto others