Chapter 1 - The Origins Of Psychology - Terms And Concepts Flashcards Preview

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1

Psychology

Scientific study of the behavior of humans and other animals

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Scientific Method

Careful observation of events in the world, the formation of predictions based on these observations and the testing of these predictions by manipulation of variables and systematic observation

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Structuralism

Approach to psychology that attempted to break down experience into its basic elements or structures, using a technique called introspection, in which subjects provided scientific reports of perceptual experiences

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Functionalism

Approach to psychology that emphasizes the functional, practical nature of the mind. Influenced by Darwin's theory of natural selection, functionalists attempted to learn how mental processes - such as learning, thinking, and perceiving - helped people adapt

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Behaviorism

Scientific approach to the study of behavior that emphasizes the relationship between environmental events and an organism's behavior

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Gestalt Psychology

Approach to psychology, which argues that the whole of an experience is different than the sum of its parts (Gestalt psychology is an active force in current investigations of perceptual processes and learning as well as therapy, where it emphasizes the whole person)

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Humanistic Psychology

Approach to psychology that emphasizes the role of free choice and our ability to make conscious rational decisions about how we live our lives

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Cognitive Psychology

Approach to psychology that focuses on the ways in which organisms process information, and investigates the processes such as thinking, memory, language, problem solving, and creativity

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Developmental Psychology

Field of specialization in psychology concerned with factors that influence development and shape behavior throughout the life cycle from conception through old age

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Social Psychology

Field of specialization concerned with understanding the impact of social environments and social processes on individuals

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Personality Psychology

Field of specialization that focuses on exploring the uniqueness of the individual, describing the elements that make up human personality, and investigating how personality develops and how it influences people's activities

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Experimental Psychology

Field of specialization in which the primary activity is conducting research

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Biological Psychology

Branch of neuroscience, also known as physiological psychology, that focuses on the relationship between behavior and physiological events within the brain and the rest of the nervous system

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Clinical Psychology

Area of specialization involved in the diagnosis and treatment of behavioral problems

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Counseling Psychology

Area of specialization involved in the diagnosis and treatment of problems of adjustment (counseling psychologists tend to focus on less serious problems than do clinical psychologists; they often work in settings such as schools)

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Educational Psychology

Field of specialization in psychology concerned with the study and application of learning and teaching methods,focusing on areas such as improving educational curricula and training teachers

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School Psychology

Field of specialization concerned with evaluating students' interest and abilities and resolving learning and emotional problems

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Industrial/Organizational (I/O) Psychology

Field of specialization concerned with using psychological concepts to make the workplace a more satisfying environment for employees and management

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Engineering Psychology

Field of specialization concerned with creating optimal relationships among people, the machines they operate, and the environments they work in, sometimes called human factors psychology

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Health Psychology

Area of Specialization concerned with the interaction between behavioral factors and physical health

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Positive Psychology

The study of human behavior aimed at discovering and promoting the positive strengths and attributes that enable individuals to thrive and succeed

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Forensic Psychology

Field of specialization that works with the legal, court, and correctional systems to develop personality profiles of criminals, make decisions about disposition of convicted offenders, and helps law enforcers understand behavioral problems

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Artificial Intelligence (AI)

Field of specialization in which researchers develop computer models to simulate human cognitive processes and to solve problems

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Connectionism

The learning theory proposed by Thorndike that learning is the result of forming associations or connections between stimuli and responses (modern connectionism is focused on discovering the neurobiological mechanisms underlying learned associations)

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Evolutionary Psychology

A recent approach to both investigating and explaining human behavior in terms of natural selection

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Cultural Psychology

A field that investigates how cultural and religious traditions and practices shape and contribute to differences in human behavior

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American Psychological Association (APA)

The major professional organization of psychologists in the United States

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Association for Psychological Science (APS)

Professional group of academic and research psychologists founded in 1988

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Theory

A logical explanation for all of the relevant data or facts scientists have observed regarding certain natural phenomena (an essential aspect of scientific theories is that they must be both testable and refutable, not the be confused with the common usage of the term used to signify a hunch, a speculation, or an opinion)

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Hypothesis

Statement proposing the existence of a relationship between variables, typically as a tentative explanation for cause and effect; hypothesis are often designed to be tested by research