Chapter 8 - Motivation Terms and Concepts Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8 - Motivation Terms and Concepts Deck (27)
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1

Motivation

A condition or state that energizes and directs an organism's actions

2

Instincts

Innate patterns of behavior that occur in every normally functioning member of a species under certain set conditions

3

Incentive

Any external stimulus that can motivate behavior even when no internal drive state exists

4

Need for Achievement (nAch)

Complex psychosocial motive to accomplish difficult goals, attain high standards, surpass the achievements of others, and increase self-regard by succeeding in exercising talent

5

Cognitive Expectancies

A learned expectancy of relationships between stimuli (in Pavlovian conditioning) and between responses & outcomes (in operant conditioning)

6

Cognitive Dissonance Theory

Theory that people experience psychological discomfort or dissonance whenever two related cognitions or behaviors are in conflict

7

Biologically Based Motives

Motives such as hunger and thirst that are rooted primarily in body tissue needs; sometimes referred to as drives

8

Drive

Commonly used to describes motives that are based on tissue needs, such as hunger and thirst

9

Ventromedial Hypothalamus (VMH)

A region of the hypothalamus in which damage results in faster gastric emptying and an increase in insulin production (The VMH is also important for female sexual behavior)

10

Lateral Hypothalamus (LH)

An area of the hypothalamus that is important for taste sensation, mediating digestive processes, and salivation

11

Arcuate Nucleus

An area of the hypothalamus, adjacent to the ventromedial nucleus which regulates the secretion of neuropeptide Y and insulin

12

Neuropeptide Y (NPY)

A potent stimulator of appetite as well as a regulator of insulin secretion

13

Glucotastic Hypothesis

Theory that hunger results when glucoreceptors detect a lack of glucose, either because blood levels of glucose are low or because insulin is not available in sufficient quantity

14

Cholecystokinin (CCK)

A hormone that regulates the rate of food digestion and decreases appetite by affecting neurons in the hypothalamus

15

Leptin

A hormone that is produced by fat cells and appears to signal satiety to neurons in the hypothalamus

16

Obesity

Condition in which an individual weighs 20 percent or more above the desirable weight for his or her height

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Anorexia Nervosa

Eating disorder characterized by prolonged refusal to eat adequate amounts of food are most common among young adults

18

Bulimia

Eating disorder characterized by periodic episodes of binge eating followed by deliberate purging using either vomiting or laxatives

19

Sensation-Seeking Motive

An explanation for the apparent need for certain levels of stimulation including the need to explore the environment and the need for sensory stimulation

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Arousal

A physiological state in which an individual is able to process information effectively and to engage in motivated behavior

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Optimum Level of Arousal

Level of arousal at which an individual's performance on a specific task is most efficient

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Yerkes-Dodson Law

Principle that the optimum level of arousal for peak performance will vary somewhat depending on the nature of the task

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Androgens

Male sex hormones the most common which is testosterone

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Estrogens

Hormones that influence female sexual development

25

Cultural Mores

Established customs or beliefs in a particular culture

26

Sexual Orientation

Sex to which an individual is attracted

27

Homosexuality

Primary erotic, psychological, and social interest in members of the same sex, even though that interest may not be expressed overtly