Chapters 13, 14, 15, & 17 Flashcards Preview

PSYCH 115 > Chapters 13, 14, 15, & 17 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapters 13, 14, 15, & 17 Deck (60)
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1

A good operational definition of intelligence is "the ability to think abstractly."

A. True
B. False

False

2

The Stanford-Binet test allows for the calculation of overall IQ and also of the verbal performance IQ.

A. True
B. False

False

3

If a person took the same IQ test three times and received a similar score each time, it could be said that this test is reliable.

A. True
B. False

True

4

Sternberg and Gardner's models of intelligence seek to understand intelligence as a process.

A. True
B. False

True

5

Most psychologists believe that differences in intelligence between racial groups are largely - if not exclusively - the result of environmental factors.

A. True
B. False

True

6

Trait theories are descriptive theories that attempt to identify specific dimensions or characteristics of personality.

A. True
B. False

True

7

One main criticism of trait theories is that people do not behave as consistently from one situation to another as trait theories would tend to predict.

A. True
B. False

True

8

To Freud, the dynamics of personality center around conflict between the impulse-driven id, the guilt-inducing superego, and the ego or mediator.

A. True
B. False

True

9

According to Maslow, self-actualized individuals tend to be conformists.

A. True
B. False

False

10

Both behavioral observation and interviews might be influenced by observer bias.

A. True
B. False

True

11

DSM-5 is the most recent edition of the diagnostic manual.

A. True
B. False

True

12

A person who does not leave his or her house because of fear associated with being in open public places suffers from a social phobia.

A. True
B. False

False

13

Anxiety disorders include agoraphobia, social anxiety, generalized anxieties, and phobias.

A. True
B. False

True

14

Agoraphobia is an intense fear of being in places where escape may be difficult such as a theatre, bus, or airplane.

A. True
B. False

True

15

Disregard for the rights of others and impulsivity are two characteristics associated with antisocial personality disorder.

A. True
B. False

True

16

The tendency to feel a diminished sense of responsibility in an emergency when others are present is referred to as bystander apathy.

A. True
B. False

True

17

The halo effect would predict that you perceive a well-mannered child as more attractive than his less-polite identical twin.

A. True
B. False

False

18

Providing accurate information that contradicts a prejudiced individual's viewpoint is an effective way to alter that person's negative attitude.

A. True
B. False

False

19

Conformity involves simply modifying behaviors so that they are consistent with those of others; compliance involves modifying behavior in response to direct requests from others.

A. True
B. False

True

20

Berkowitz suggests that frustration will not result in aggression unless suitable environmental cues are present.

A. True
B. False

True

21

In developing his intelligence test, Binet reasoned that a child with high intelligence would perform in the intelligence test similar to which of the following?

A. A Child of the same chronological age.
B. An Older child of average intelligence.
C. An Older child of below-average intelligence.
D. A Child of the same age and of average intelligence.

B. An Older child of average intelligence.

22

Which of the following is not an advantage of group-administered intelligence tests compared to individual intelligence tests?

A. Can be given to a number of people at the same time
B. Are quicker to administer
C. Encourage the best possible performance from individuals
D. Are more easily scored

C. Encourage the best possible performance from individuals

23

Because intelligence tests _____, one should receive the same IQ score regardless of who administers and scores the test.

A. Are standardized
B. Have established norms
C. Are valid
D. Are reliable

A. Are standardized

24

If a test measures what it is supposed to measure, it has _____.

A. Validity
B. Norms
C. Reliability
D. Consistency

A. Validity

25

Which of the following are designed to measure a type of ability that is different from the type of ability measured by the other three tests?

A. Aptitude tests
B. Otis-Lennon School Ability Test (OLSAT)
C. Achievement tests
D. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)

C. Achievement tests

26

Guilford used the term content to describe which of the following?

A. How we think
B. What we think about
C. How we apply our thinking
D. Primary ability

B. What we think about

27

Good problem solvers who score high on intelligence tests ____ than people who score low in intelligence tests

A. Take a longer time to encode information
B. Take a shorter time to encode information
C. Arrive at the correct solution faster
D. Make more careless mistakes

A. Take a longer time to encode information

28

Which two people would you expect to have IQs that are most similar?

A. A parent and a child
B. Fraternal twins reared together
C. Two same-sex siblings
D. Identical twins reared apart

D. Identical twins reared apart

29

_____ is the psychologist who proposed that the difference in average IQ scores between blacks and whites is due primarily to genetic factors

A. Jensen
B. Skeels
C. Sternberg
D. Gardner

A. Jensen

30

Current opinion among psychologists is that differences in intelligence test scores between racial groups are

A. non-existent
B. larger than they were 50 years ago
C. a result of the environment as opposed to genes
D. a result of genetic differences between races

C. a result of the environment as opposed to genes