Chapter 2 - The Methods Of Psychology - Terms And Concepts Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 - The Methods Of Psychology - Terms And Concepts Deck (34)
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1

Case Study

Method of research that involves in-depth study of one or more participants who are examined individually using direct observation, testing, experimentation, and other methods

2

Coefficient of Correlation

Statistic used to describe the degree of relationship between two or more variables in which positive correlations indicate that variables vary together in the same direction and negative correlations indicate the opposite.

3

Control Group

In experimental psychology, a group of participants who experience all the same conditions as participants in the experimental group except for the key factor (independent variable) the researcher is evaluating

4

Correlational Method

Research Method that uses statistical techniques to determine the degree of relationship between variables

5

Dependent Variable

In experimental research, the behavior that results from manipulation of an independent variable

6

Descriptive Statistics

Mathematical and graphical methods for reducing data to a form that can be readily understood

7

Experimental Group

In experimental research, a group of participants who are exposed to different varieties of independent variables, so that resulting behaviors can be compared

8

Experimental Research

Research conducted in precisely controlled laboratory conditions in which participants are confronted with specific stimuli and their reactions are carefully measured to discover relationships among variables

9

Hypothesis

Statement proposing existence of a relationship between variables, typically as a tentative explanation for cause and effect, and often designed for research testing

10

Independent Variable

Condition or factor that the experimenter manipulates in order to determine whether changes in behavior (the dependent variable) result

11

Inferential Statistics

Process of using mathematical procedures to draw conclusions about the meaning of research data

12

Mean

In descriptive statistics, the arithmetic average obtained by adding scores and dividing by the number of scores

13

Median

In descriptive statistics, the score that falls in the middle of a distribution of numbers arranged from the lowest to the highest

14

Mode

In descriptive statistics, the score that occurs most frequently in a distribution of numbers

15

Measure of Central Tendency

In descriptive statistics, a value that reflects the middle or central point of a distribution of scores. The three measures are mean, median, and mode

16

Measure of Variability

In descriptive statistics, a measure that indicates whether distribution sores are clustered closely around their average or widely spread out. The two measures of variability are the range and the standard deviation.

17

Theory

A scientific theory is a logical explanation for all the relevant data or facts scientists have observed regarding certain natural phenomena. An essential aspect of scientific theories is that they must be both testable and refutable, not to be confused with the common usage of the term used to signify a hunch a speculation, or an opinion

18

Replication Studies

Research conducted for the purpose of verifying previous findings

19

Survey

Research method that provides descriptive information in which a representative sample of people is questioned about their behaviors or attitudes

20

Sample

Selected segment of a larger population that is being studied in psychological research. Two kinds of samples are the representative sample and the random sample

21

Representative Sample

Sample in which critical subgroups are represented according to their incidence in the larger population that the researcher is studying

22

Random Sample

Sample group of a larger population that is selected by using randomization procedures

23

Observational Method

Method of psychological research providing descriptive information, in which participants are observed as they go about their usual activities

24

Naturalistic Observation

Psychological research using the observational method that takes place in a natural setting, such as a participant's home or school environment

25

Observer Bias

Tendency of an observer to read more into a situation than is actually there or to see what he or she expects to see. Observer bias is a potential limitation of the observational method.

26

Observer Effect

Tendency of participants to modify behavior because they are aware of being observed

27

Statistics

Mathematical methods for describing and interpreting data. Two kinds of statistics are descriptive and inferential statistics.

28

Normal Distribution

In descriptive statistics, a distribution in which scores are distributed similarly on both sides of the middle value, so that they have the appearance of the bell-shape curve when graphed

29

Skewed

In descriptive statistics, the term describes an unbalanced distribution of scores

30

Range

In descriptive statistics, a measure of variability that indicates the difference between the highest and lowest scores