Chapter 3 - The Biology Of Behavior - Terms And Concepts pt. 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3 - The Biology Of Behavior - Terms And Concepts pt. 2 Deck (49)
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1

Caudate Nucleus

A component of the basal ganglia involved with the control and initiation of motor movement - an area of the brain affected by Huntington's disease, which is located adjacent to the putamen

2

Putamen

A component of the basal ganglia involved with the control and initiation of motor movement - an area of the brain affected by Huntington's disease, which is located adjacent to the caudate nucleus

3

Substantia Nigra

A region of dark colored neurons in the upper brainstem that sends axons to the caudate nuclues and to the putamen - an area of the brain affected by Parkinson's disease

4

Cerebral Cortex

This outer layer of the brain's cerebrum (sometimes called gray matter) that is responsible for movement, perception, thinking, and memory

5

Sensory Cortex

Region of the cerebral cortex that is involved in receiving sensory messages

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Motor Cortex

Region of the cerebral cortex that transmits messages to muscles and controls virtually all intentional body movements

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Association Cortex

The largest portion of the cerebral cortex (about 75%), involved in integrating sensory and motor messages as well as processing higher functions such as thinking, interpreting, and remembering

8

Frontal Lobe

Largest, foremost lobe in the cerebral cortex; an important region for movement, emotion, and memory

9

Broca's Area

Region of the left frontal love that is the primary brain center for controlling speech

10

Broca's Aphasia

The loss of the ability to speak or understand spoken or written language, also called expressive aphasia

11

Parietal Lobe

Region of the cerebral cortex located just behind the central fissure and above the lateral fissure, contains the somatosensory cortex as well as association areas that process sensory information received by the somatosensory cortex

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Somatosensory Cortex

Area of the parietal lobe, directly across from the motor cortex in the frontal lobe, which receives sensory information about touch, pressure, pain, temperature, and body position

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Occipital Lobe

Region at the rear of cerebral cortex that consists of primarily the visual cortex

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Visual Cortex

Portion of the occipital lobe that integrates sensory information received from the eyes into electrical patterns that the brain translates into vision

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Temporal Lobe

Region of the cerebral cortex located below the lateral fissure that contains the auditory cortex

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Auditory Cortex

Region of the temporal lobe located just below the lateral fissure that is involved in responding to auditory signals, particularly the sound of human speech

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Wernicke's Area

Area of the left temporal lobe that is the brain's primary area for understanding speech

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Wernicke's Aphasia

A loss of the ability to comprehend spoken or written language, also called receptive aphasia

19

Agnosias

An inability to know or recognize objects through the senses usually caused by brain injury or disease resulting in the failure to recognize or identify objects visually even though they can be seen

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Prosopagnosia

An inability to visually recognize particular faces usually caused by brain disease or injury (patients with prosopagnosia can see a face but may not be able to recognize it as familiar)

21

Lesion Production

Technique for studying the brain that involves surgical damage to a precise region of the brain (most commonly done with experimental animals)

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Brain Stimulation

Technique for studying the brain that involves stimulating precise regions with a weak electric current

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Electric Recording

Technique for studying the brain in which tiny wires implanted in the brain are used to record neural electrical activity

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Electroencephalography (EEG)

Technique used to measure and record electrical activity of the cortex

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Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT)

A procedure used to locate brain abnormalities that involves rotating an X-ray scanner around the skull to produce an accurate image of the living brain

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Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

Technique for studying the brain that involves injecting a subject with a glucose-like sugar tagged with a radioactive isotope that accumulates in brain cells in direct proportion to their activity level

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Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

Procedure for studying the brain that uses radio waves to excite hydrogen protons in the brain tissue, creating a magnetic field charge

28

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)

A method of magnetic resonance imaging that measures energy released by brain cells that are active during a specific task

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Endocrine system

System of ductless glands, including the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, pancreas, and gonads that secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream or lymph fluids

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Hormones

Chemical messengers secreted by the endocrine glands that act to regulate the functioning of specific body organs