Chapter 6 - Learning and Behavior Terms and Concepts Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6 - Learning and Behavior Terms and Concepts Deck (48)
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Learning

Relatively enduring change in potential behavior and results from experience

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Associative Learning

Learning by making an association between two stimulus events (Pavlovian conditioning) or by learning an association between a response and its consequence (operant conditioning)

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Pavlovian Conditioning

This is learning that takes place when a neutral stimulus (CS) is paired with a stimulus (UCS) that already produces a response (UCR). After conditioning, the organism responds to the neutral stimulus (CS) in some way. The response to the CS is called a conditioned response (CR).

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Operant Conditioning

Learning an association between one's behavior and its consequence (reinforcement or punishment)

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Template Learning

Learning that depends on a particular type of perceptual experience during a critical time in development (examples would include imprinting and language learning)

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Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)

In Pavlovian conditioning, a stimulus that elicits an unlearned response or reflex

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Unconditioned Response (UCR)

In Pavlovian conditioning, an unlearned response or reflex caused by an unconditioned stimulus

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Conditioned Stimulus (CS)

In Pavlovian conditioning, a stimulus that elicits a response only after being associated with an unconditioned stimulus

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Conditioned Response (CR)

In Pavlovian conditioning a learned response to a conditioned stimulus

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Acquisition

In Pavlovian conditioning, the process of learning to associate a conditioned stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus-- In operant conditioning, the process of learning to associate responses with a reinforcer or punisher

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Delayed Conditioning

In Pavlovian conditioning, learning that takes place when the conditioned stimulus is presented just before the unconditioned stimulus is presented and continues until the organism begins responding to the unconditioned stimulus

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Simultaneous Conditioning

In Pavlovian conditioning, learning that takes place when the conditioned stimulus is presented at the same time as the unconditioned stimulus

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Trace Conditioning

In Pavlovian conditioning, learning that takes palce when presentation of the conditioned stimulus begins and ends before the unconditioned stimulus is presented

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Backward Conditioning

In Pavlovian conditioning presenting the unconditioned stimulus prior to the conditioned stimulus (backward conditioning results in little or no conditioning)

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Conditioned Taste Aversion

A learned aversion to a relatively novel taste or smell that occurs followed by illness or nausea

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Extinction

In Pavlovian conditioning, the process by which a conditioned response is eliminated through repeated presentation of the conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus. In operant conditioning the process of eliminating a response by discontinuing reinforcement for it.

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Reinstatement

In Pavlovian conditioning, the reappearance of a conditioned response after extinction has taken place

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Generalization

Proces by which an organism responds to stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus, without undergoing conditioning for each similar stimulus

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Discrimination

In Pavlovian & operant conditioning, the process by which responses are restricted to specific stimuli-- In social psychology, the behavioral consequence of prejudice in which one group is treated differently from another group

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Second-Order Conditioning

A learned association between two conditioned stimuli (CS2-CS1) that can occur following conditioning to CS1 and an unconditioned stimulus (US)

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Law of Effect

Behavior followed by reinforcement will be strengthened while behavior followed by punishment will be weakened (theory originally proposed by Edward Thorndike that is the foundation of the operant conditioning theory)

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Cumulative Record

A chart recording of operant responses over time--time increment is indicated along the horizontal axis (as response rate increases the slope of the record increases)

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Discriminative Stimulus

In operant conditioning, a stimulus that controls a response by signaling the availability of reinforcement

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Reinforcement

In operant conditioning, any procedure where an event following a specific response increases the probability that the response will occur

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Positive Reinforcement

In operant conditioning, any stimulus presented after a response that increases the probability of the response

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Negative Reinforcement

In operant conditioning, any stimulus that increases the probability of a response through its removal

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Escape Conditioning

In operant conditioning, learning that takes place when an organism performs a response that will terminate an aversive stimulus

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Avoidance Conditioning

In operant conditioning, the learning of a response to a discriminative stimulus that allows an organism to avoid exposure to an aversive stimulus

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Primary Reinforcer

In operant conditioning, a stimulus that satisfies a biologically based drive or need (such as hunger, thirst or sleep)

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Conditioned Reinforcer

A stimulus that takes on reinforcing properties after being associated with a primary reinforcer