Chapter 3 - The Biology Of Behavior - Terms And Concepts pt. 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3 - The Biology Of Behavior - Terms And Concepts pt. 1 Deck (49)
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Nervous System

A network of specialized cells called neurons and glia that coordinate action and transmit signals between different parts of the body. The nervous system consists of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system

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Central Nervous System

The part of the nervous system that consists of the brain and the spinal cord

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Peripheral Nervous System

Portion of the nervous system that transmits messages to and from the central nervous system that consists of somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system

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Neuron

Type of cell that is the basic unit of the nervous system (a neuron typically consists of a cell body, dendrites, and an axon Neurons transmit messages to other neurons and to glands and muscles throughout the body)

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Glia

Non-neuronal cells that provide support and protection for neurons throughout the nervous system (the name glia comes from the Greek term for glue)

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Sensory Neuron

Neuron or nerve cell that carries messages to the CNS from receptors in the skin, ears, nose, eyes, and other receptor organs--also known as afferent neuron.

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Motor Neuron

Neuron that transmits messages from the central nervous system to muscles or glands--also known as efferent neuron.

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Interneuron

Neuron of the central nervous system that functions as an intermediary between sensory and motor neurons.

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Cell Body

The largest part of a neuron, containing the nucleus as well as structures that handle metabolic functions

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Dendrites

Branch-like extensions from a neuron with the specialized function of receiving messages from surrounding neurons

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Axon

Extension of a neuron that transmits an impulse from the cell body to the terminal buttons on the tip of the axon

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Terminal Buttons

Swollen bulb-like structures on the end of a neuron's axon that releases chemical substances known as neurotransmitters

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Resting Potential

State in which a neuron is not transmitting a nerve impulse-- a neuron in this state has a net negative charge relative to its outside environment and this state of potential energy prepares it to be activated by a signal from an adjacent neuron

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Graded Potential

Voltage change in a neuron's dendrites that is produced by receiving a signal from another neuron or neurons

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Axon Hillock

A specialized region of the cell body near the base of the axon

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Action Potential

Electrical signal that flows along the surface of the axon to the terminal buttons, initiating the release of neurotransmitters

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All-or-None Law

An action potential will be passed through a neuron's axon as long as the sum of the graded potentials reaches a threshold. The strength of an action potential does not vary according to the degree of stimulation.

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Myelin Sheath

Insulation cover around some axons that increases a neuron's ability to transmit impulses quickly (myelin sheaths are made of specialized cells called glial cells)

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Node of Ranvier

Small gap or exposed neuron between glial cells that for the myelin sheath

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Synapse

Includes the synaptic gap and a portion of the presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes that are involved in transmitting a signal between neurons

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Neurotransmitter

Chemical substance produced and secreted by neurons that cause a change in the receiving neurons resting potential

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Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials (EPSPs)

Effects that occur when excitatory neurotransmitters cause a depolarizing graded potential to occur on the dendrite or cell body of a receiving neuron making the receiving neuron more likely to fire

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Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials (IPSPs)

Effects that occur when inhibitory neurotransmitters cause a hyperpolarizing graded postsynaptic potential on a receiving neuron making the receiving neuron less likely to fire

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Acetylcholine (ACh)

The neurotransmitter that is released from motor neurons onto muscle fibers to make them contract (also involved in learning memory and cognition)

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Noreprinephrine

A major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, which is distributed throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems and is important in emotional arousal and stress.

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Dopamine

A neurotransmitter involved with the initiation of motor movement, attention, and learning and memory (the dopamine system mediates reward and pleasure and it is the substance of addiction)

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Serotonin

A neurotransmitter involved in the control of the sleep/wake cycle, mood and appetite (deficiencies of serotonin are associated with sleep disorders, aggression, and depression)

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Gamma-Amino-Butyric-Acid (GABA)

GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain and spinal cord. It plays an important role in regulating arousal and anxiety.

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Endorphins

A class of neurotransmitters substances that function to inhibit the transmission of pain information (morphine and other opiates act by facilitating endorphin transmission)

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Glutamate (Glutamic Acid)

An amino acid derived from glucose, which plays an important excitatory function (MSG contains glutamate)