Chapter 10 - Eating Disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 10 - Eating Disorders Deck (98):
1

anorexia nervosa

development of morbid fears of fatness, perceive themselves as fat, and reduce their food intake to the point of the state of being abnormally thin or weak

2

bulimia nervosa

periods of food restriction alternate with periods of binge eating, where excessive amounts of food are consumed

3

binge-eating disorder

rapidly, eating until uncomfortably full, eating despite not being hungry, eating alone because of embarrassment etc. and then feeling guilty or disgust

4

what kind of fear do people with anorexia have

intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat

5

ARFID

characterized by a feeding disturbance that leads to being underweight and/or an inability to eat enough food to meet nutritional/energy needs

6

purging

self-induced vomiting, laxative abuse, or abuse of enemas or diuretics

7

objective binge

consists of eating a large amount of food in a specific time period

8

subjective binge

small or normal amounts of food during these episodes

9

what kind of binge eating do bulimic individuals engage in

objective binge eating

10

BMI

weight in kilos/height in metres squared

11

restricting type

attain extremely low body weights through strict dieting and sometimes excessive exercise

12

binge-eating/purging type

engage in strict dieting, sometimes excessive exercise but also regular binge eating/purging behaviors

13

what two things is bulimia nervosa characterized by

1) eating in a 2 hour period and an amount of food that is deemed more than normal
2) sense of lack of control over eating during episode

14

eating disorder examination

structured clinical interview for diagnosing eating disorders that has good reliability and validity

15

lanugo

fine downy hair - may grow on on the body in order to maintain body warmth

16

amenorrhea

absence of at least three consecutive periods

17

what disorder does amenorrhea occur the most in

anorexia nervosa

18

Russell's sign

scrapes or calluses on the backs of hands or knuckles

19

what disorder does Russell's sign occur most in

bulimia nervosa

20

what is considered a casual risk factor for the development of an eating disorder

thin media images

21

do individuals with anorexia or bulimia have more negative schemas?

yes

22

precipitating factors

events or situations that trigger the eating disorder

23

perpetuating factors

physical and psychological symptoms that serve to maintain the disorder such as reduced basal metabolic rate, depression, social isolation etc.

24

best biological treatment for bulimia nervosa

CBT and antidepressant medication

25

first priority for a patient with anorexia nervosa

restore body weight to a healthy minimal level

26

what can self-help manuals be used for

1) for individuals who might not otherwise have access to expert help or may be too embarrassed to access help
2) conjunction with guidance by a non-specialist professional such as a nurse or family doctor
3) as a first step to treatment slivery and for treatment that may be more intense

27

history of eating disorders

prior to 60s - few eating disorders
60s-70s - increase in cases of anorexia
late 70s - bulimia nervosa
2013 - bing eating disorder

28

symptoms of anorexia nervosa

low body weight, fear of gaining weight, body image disturbance

29

symptoms of bulimia nervosa

objective binge eating episodes, inappropriate compensatory behaviour, undue influence of body shape/weight on self evaluation, not exclusively during AN

30

how long must symptoms show for BN

at least a week for three months

31

are people with BN usually normal weight or slight overweight?

yes

32

BED symptoms

eating more rapidly, eating until uncomfortably full, eating large amounts when not hungry, eating alone because embarrassed by amount, feeling disgusted/depressed/or very guilty afterwards

33

requirements for BED

- recurrent binge eating at least once a week for three months
- at least three symptoms
- no regular use of inappropriate compensatory behaviours
- not during BN or AN

34

is ARFID due to weight or shape concerns or body image disturbance

no

35

criteria for other eating disorders

- atypical AN, BN/BED with low frequency or limited duration, purging disorder, night-eating disorder

36

are eating disorders more prevalent in men or women

women - 2-3x more common

37

age onset of AN

19

38

age onset of BN

20

39

age onset of BED

25

40

are interviews more accurate than self-report measures

yes

41

complications of AN

osteoporosis, heart problems, lethargy, hair loss, sensitivity to cold, lanugo, amenorrhea, kidney failure etc

42

consequences of starvations

emotional instability, inability to focus, decreased heart rate, lethargy, etc.

43

complications of BN

dental problems, electrolyte imbalance, heart and kidney problems, obesity etc

44

complications of BED

obesity, risk of diabetes, heart disease, sleep apnea

45

associated features of AN

Social withdrawal
Irritability
Preoccupation with food
Depression

46

subtypes of AN

restrictive and binge-eating purging

47

Compensatory behaviours

Fasting
Excessive exercise
Purging

48

What types of binges take place in BN

objective

49

Are compensatory behaviours used in BED

no not regularly

50

most common eating disorder

BED

51

second most common eating disorder

BN

52

Weight of anorexic patients

BMI under 18

53

Rarest eating disorder

AN

54

Which disorder shows the most gender differences

AN

55

Which disorder shows the least gender differences

BN

56

What eating behaviours do men participate in the most

Binge-eating and excessive exercise

57

Which male group reports the highest level of symptoms

middle aged men

58

Restrictions in AN

Amount of food
Type of food

59

recovery rate in BN

50% no symptoms
20% show no change in symptoms

60

How many ED diagnosis can you have at one time

one at a time

61

etiology of eating disorders

Genetics
Neurotransmitter deregulation
Pre-existing obesity
Psychosocial factors

62

biological factors of eating disorders

Genetics (50%)
Neurotransmitter deregulation (Dysfunctional serotonin activity)

63

differential diagnosis

Must rule out medical reasons for symptoms and MDD

64

What differentiations must be made to diagnosis

Is it BN or binge-eating/purging AN?

Is it BED or BN? Are compensations excessive and inappropriate?

65

Psychosocial factors of EDs

Physical/ sexual abuse
Personality characteristics

66

Personality characteristics that influence development of EDs

Perfectionism
Neuroticism
Punishment avoidance
Sensitivity to social rewards
Negative urgency
Low extraversion
Level of Impulsivity

67

Neuroticism

personality trait characterized by anxiety, fear, moodiness, worry, envy, frustration, jealousy, and loneliness.

68

Negative urgency

Tendency to act rashly when distressed

69

extraversion

Measure of outgoingness and social ability of a person

70

family factors

Family history of EDs
High parental expectations
Transmission of pathological values (value on weight and attractiveness)
Miscommunication (Mothers can give false/ inaccurate info)
Family relationships

71

sociocultural factors

Thin ideal

Thin ideal > increased body dissatisfaction > increased risk of disorder

72

How does the media portray eating disorders

Young White females
Rarely discuss bad aspects
Never see biological/genetic reasons for the disorder

73

Treatment of Anorexia Nervosa

Family based treatments (Most Effective)
CBT for relapse prevention
Focal psychoanalytical therapy
Motivational interviewing
Specialist supported clinical management

74

Family based treatment

3 phases involving family
1. Weight restoration
2. Return of eating control
3. Promote normal development (Non-weight based identity)

75

Who is family based treatment effective for

Teens

76

Treatment of Bulimia Nervosa

CBT (Most Effective)
Interpersonal therapy
Family-based treatment
Motivational enhancement
Dialectical behaviour treatment

77

CBT for BN

Reduce dysfunctional dieting
Develop skills to deal with high risk situations
Modify thoughts and feelings about shape and weight

78

How does CBT reduce dysfunctional dieting

Promote moderation
Nothing is completely good food or bad food

79

Theory behind CBT for BN

Dietary restriction + negative emotions = binge-eating/purging

80

Treatment of BED

CBT
Interpersonal therapy
Behavioural weight loss
Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (Most Effective)
Motivational interviewing

81

Behavioural Weight loss

There is a good and bad foods list
Evidence based treatment

82

dialectical behaviour therapy

Emotion regulation

3 Components

83

components of DBT

Group Skills Training
Individual Therapy
Telephone Coaching

84

goals of DBT in BED

Mindfulness
Distress Tolerance
Emotion Regulation
Interpersonal Effectiveness

85

what is mindfulness in DBT

Learn that negative emotions are brief states

86

Distress Tolerance in DBT

Learn skills to help yourself through a crisis

87

Emotion Regulation in DBT

Reduce vulnerability to negative emotions

88

Interpersonal Effectiveness in DBT

Develop relationship skills

89

levels of prevention

Universal
Selected
Indicated

90

universal prevention

Targets cultural attitudes and practices

Main focus are public institutions and public policies

91

Selected Prevention

Targets high risk groups

92

indicated prevention

Targets people showing early warning signs

Girls with high weight/shape concerns

93

Dissonance-based Prevention programs

Have people critique the thin ideal

Reduce discrepancy between beliefs and actions

94

What levels of prevention are most effective

indicated and Selected

95

Which group benefits the most from prevention programs

adolescents

96

Are interactive or presentation(didatic) based prevention more effective

interactive

97

types of binges in AN

subjective

98

Should prevention focus on teaching about EDs

More effective when they are focused on body acceptance