Chapter 5 - Anxiety and Related Disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5 - Anxiety and Related Disorders Deck (94)
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1

anxiety

affective state whereby an individual feels threatened by the occurrence of a possible future negative event

2

fear

Occurs in response to a real or perceived current threat

3

what kind of an emotion is fear

"present oriented"

4

"fight or flight" response

fear prompts a person or organism to either flee from a dangerous situation or stand and fight

5

panic

similar to fear, making these two emotional states difficult to distinguish in terms of their physiological and behavioural components

6

until 1980 what were anxiety disorders classified with

somatoform and dissociative disorders

7

what did Freud theorize about the difference in anxiety

difference between objective fears and neurotic anxiety

8

what did Freud theorize about anxiety

proposed that neurotic anxiety is a signal to the ego that an unacceptable drive (mainly sexual in nature) is pressing for conscious representation

9

how much more likely is an individual who's family member is diagnosed with anxiety disorder to have on as well

4-6x more likely

10

where is the information from the amygdala sent to

areas in the hypothalamus and then through a midbrain area to the brain stem and spinal cord

11

what kinds of autonomic and behavioural components do the brain stem and spinal cord connect with in expression of fear

autonomic: increased heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature
behavioural: freezing, fight/flight

12

what areas are not directly involved in the fear circuit?

higher cortical areas

13

two-factor theory

suggests that fears develop through the process of classical conditioning and are maintained of anxiety

14

what does the two-factor theory not do a good job of explaining

the development of all phobias

15

vicarious learning

develop fears by observing the reactions of other people

16

what relationship may be important in the development of anxiety

early attachment relationship

17

what do anxiety disorders tend to be without treatment

chronic and recurrent and are associated with significant distress and suffering

18

panic attacks

involves recurrent attacks of overwhelming anxiety that occur unexpectedly - have the physical symptoms of anxiety

19

symptoms of panic attacks

1) sweating
2) trembling or shaking
3) feelings of choking
4) nausea or abdominal distress
5) chills or heat sensations
6) fear of dying
7) pounding heart

20

how many symptoms must be present for panic attacks

at least 4 symptoms with at least two unexpected attacks are required for this diagnosis

21

agoraphobia

anxiety about being in places or situations where an individual might find it difficult to escape

22

what two disorders are highly comorbid?

panic disorder and agoraphobia

23

gender differences in panic disorder

women are twice as likely

24

behavioural avoidance test (BAT)

patients are asked to enter situations that they would typically avoid - provide a rating of their anticipated anxiety and actual anxiety

25

symptom induction test

patient may be asked to do something to bring on symptoms of panic (ex. hyperventilate) - this will let them assess symptom severity and be a strategy for exposure treatment

26

how much more likely is an individual who's family member is diagnosed with panic disorder to have on as well

5x more likely

27

nocturnal panic

attacks that occur while sleeping (most often during lighter stages of sleep)

28

catastrophically misinterpret

one misinterprets normal bodily sensations as signals that one is going to have a heart attack, go crazy etc.

29

anxiety sensitivity

with the belief that the somatic symptoms related to anxiety will have negative consequences that extend beyond the panic episode itself

30

alarm theory

theory proposes that a "true alarm" occurs when there is a real threat - bodies produce an adaptive physiological response