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Flashcards in Chapter 1 and 2 Deck (68):
1

Psychological Abnormality

behaviour, speech, or thought that impairs the ability of a person to function in a way that is generally expected of them, in the context where the unusual functioning occurs

2

Mental Illness

used to convey the meaning as psychological abnormality, but it implies a medical rather than psychological cause

3

Psychological Disorder

specific manifestation of this impairment of functioning as described by some set of criteria established by a panel of experts

4

Psychopathology

1) scientific study of psychological abnormality
2) problems faced by people who suffer from disorders

5

5 principles of establishing a criteria for abnormality

1) Statistical concept
2) Personal dysfunction
3) Personal distress
4) Violation of Social Norms
5) Diagnosis by an expert

6

Statistical concept

behaviour is considered abnormal if it occurs infrequently in the population

7

Problems with statistical concept

1) not all infrequent conditions are viewed as abnormal
2) no guidance on how rare a condition must be

8

Personal distress

if the condition causes distress, it is abnormal

9

Problems with personal distress

1) not all psychological disorders cause personal distress
2) distress is a universal phenomenon but we do not all have a mental illness
3) not all distress is abnormal

10

Personal dysfunction

when the condition interferes with appropriate and adaptive functioning

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Problems with personal dysfunction

1) definition of "appropriate"functioning
2) exceptions to the rule for harmful dysfunction and evolution
3) value judgement inherent in "harmful dysfunction" approach

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Violation of Social Norms

condition is abnormal if it violates social norms

13

Problems with violation of norms

1) not all violations of social norms are diagnosable conditions ex. terrorists
2) cultural norms must be considered

14

Diagnosis by an Expert

a condition exists if an expert says it does

15

Problems with diagnosis by an expert

1) important to know who the experts are - not all mental health professionals are trained to diagnose mental illness
2) arguments that mental illness is a construct made up by mental health professionals to keep people "in order"
3) arguments that anyone can be diagnosed with anything if you look in the DSM hard enough

16

Stone Age

believed that causes of mental illness was due to supernatural causes and demonic possession and treatment involved exorcism, magic, incantations, supernatural treatments

17

Hippocrates

first man to reject supernatural causes of mental illness, focused on natural causes - brain dysfunction and argued stress could influence mental functioning

18

what is a humour? what are the 4 humours? treatment

- disturbances in bodily fluids
- excess blood - cheerfulness
- excess yellow bile - ill temper
- excess black bile - gloom
- excess phlegm - restlessness
- treatment: healthy lifestyle - induce bleeding/vomiting

19

Plato

- emphasized socio-cultural influences on thought and behaviour
- believed was not supernatural causes

20

what did hippocrates believe about dreams?

- thought dreams were important in understanding why a person was suffering from a mental disorder

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why did plato believe about dreams?

suggested that dreams served to satisfy desires because the inhibiting influences of the higher faculties were not present during sleep

22

Aristotle

- agreed with theory of 4 humours
- denied influence of psychology in abnormal behaviour - focused on biology
- advocated for humane treatment

23

Egyptians

- humane approach to treatment, created sanitoriums - temples where priests cared for people with mental illness

24

Rejection of Hipproacates' views

methodism: mental illness as a disorder that resulted either from a constriction of body tissue or from a relaxation of those tissues due to exhaustion
treatment: natural bloodletting, ex. menstruation, haemorrhoid
- believed no difference between physical and mental disorders

25

Galen

- continued Hippocrates' work
- believed two sources of mental disorders: physical and psychological
- compassionate care
- believed in warm baths rather than stressful procedures
- talking a sympathetic listener

26

Arab World

- continued the Greek/Roman tradition of compassionate care
- created units to ouse the mentally ill in 800AD
- Avicenna - emphasized natural causes of mental illness including environmental and psychological causes, used early principles of behaviourism in treatment

27

Europe in Middle Ages

- some belief in naturalistic causes/treatments for mental illness
-return to supernatural beliefs about mental illness
cause= demonic possession,treatment = exorcism
- mentally ill cared for by clergy

28

Paracelsus

- rejected idea of supernatural forces or excess bodily fluids as causes of mental illness
- St. Vitus' dance - treated with early form of hypnotism

29

Johannes Weyer

- rejected supernatural causes of mental illness
- believed mental illness has natural causes
- advocated natural and physical treatment

30

History 1500AD onwards

- people advocated for protection of mentally ill and considered natural causes of mental illness
-St. Vincent de Paul - asylums were created
- Teresa of Avila - advocated for mentally ill

31

Phillipe Pinel

- ordered patients to be treated with compassion and be kept in good conditions

32

Dorothea Dix

- better conditions for prison inmates and mentally ill
- campaign resulted in opening of 32 hospitals, including 2 in Canada

33

single factor

trace origins of mental illness to one specific factor - tied to researcher's orientation

34

interactionist factor

explain mental illness as product of many interacting factors - more effective theories

35

three essential elements to a good theory

1) integrate most of what is known about the phenomena in the simplest way possible
2) generate new testable predictions
3) identify what evidence would indicate the theory is inaccurate

36

3 major areas biological models focused on

1) CNS (brain)
2) PNS (sympathetic and parasympathetic system)
3) Endocrine system (hormones)
- all areas are interconnected

37

two parts of PNS

somatic NS, autonomic NS

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autonomic NS two parts

parasympathetic (rest and digest) and sympathetic (fight or flight)

39

what do clusters of neurons form

brain circuits

40

what is the ANS involved in

fear and anxiety reactions

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overreactive ANS

acquire phobias or other anxiety disorders

42

inflexible system

somatic system constantly activated, autonomic system under activated

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what system is involved with stress, depression and anxiety

HPA axis

44

thyroid disregulation

cretenism, depression, anxiety

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cretenism

dwarflike appearance and mental retardation

46

hypoglycemia

mimics anxiety - pancreas dysfunction

47

Freud's four factors

1) levels of consciousness
2) structures of personality
3) stages of psychosexual development
4) defence mechanisms

48

ID

pleasure principle - structure present at birth - demand instant gratification without concern for consequences either to the self or to others

49

Ego

reality principle - first year of life - avoidance of pain or discomfort and the maximization of unpunished pleasure

50

Superego

moral principle - internalization of the moral standards of society

51

defense mechanisms

repression, regression, projection, intellectualization, denial, displacement, reaction formation, sublimation

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repression

burying in the unconscious the unacceptable impulses of the id ex. inability to recall being sexual abused as a child

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projection

attributing one's own desires to others ex. cheating because everyone cheats

54

intellectualization

hiding the real issues behind a screen of abstract analyses ex. criminal appeals for conviction even though did not admit guilt

55

denial

refusal to acknowledge an unpleasant reality ex. planning a trip even though told you won't live longer than two months

56

displacement

transfer of feelings from one person to another, less threatening person ex. person humiliated by boss takes anger out on boyfriend

57

reaction formation

repressing unacceptable desires by expressing the opposite viewpoint ex. man attract towards women scolds people who are promiscuous

58

sublimation

transformation of sexual or aggressive energy into some more acceptable activity ex. Freud thought artists who painted nudes were sublimating their sexual desires

59

Ivan Pavlov experiment

UCS - food
UCR - salivation to food
CS - bell
CR - salivation to bell

60

negative reinforcement

take something away, making behaviour more likely to occur ex. taking advil makes headache go away

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positive reinforcement

doing something means receiving reward ex. opening freezer door and seeing ice cream

62

positive punishment

behaviour is reduced by consequent occurrence of unpleasant experience ex. kids come home late, clean bathroom

63

negative punishment

behaviour is reduced following the removal of something desirable ex. kid comes home late, take care away

64

social learning theory

most learning occurs from watching others

65

cognitive-behavioral theory

reflects the view that both thinking and behaviour are learned and therefore can be changed

66

public stigma

typical societal response that people have to stigmatizing attributes

67

self-stigma

internalized psychological impact of public stigma

68

biopsychosocial model

disorders cannot be understood as resulting from the influence of one factor, be it biological, psychological or social