Chapter 16 - Aging and Mental Health Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 16 - Aging and Mental Health Deck (61):
1

baby boomers

people who were born within 20 years following the end of WWII in 1945

2

what are some causes of reduction in mortality among younger and oder adults

advances in public health, workplace safety, newly developed and more effective medications and surgical procedures

3

proportions of older adults increasing means what

more older adults with mental disorders

4

what personality characteristics are associated with positive health and increase over a person's lifespan

careful, vigilant, agreeableness and emotional stability

5

paradox of aging

positive mental health among older adults who would normal be considered vulnerable

6

period effect

influence of particular historical periods or events on people ex. 9/11

7

cohort effect

people born at roughly the same time is a cohort, so cohort effect is differences in age cohort. results in unique social and historical events they have experienced

8

gerentologists

professionals from a wide variety of disciplines with expertise in aging

9

normal aging

normal process of body systems slowing down that cause some systems to stop functioning - person dies of old age instead of disease

10

what factors can complicate diagnosis

1) symptoms of mental disorders can be due to age rather than psychological factors
2) more likely to have comorbid chronic physical illnesses
3) older adults are especially likely to be taking multiple medications for such illnesses

11

polypharmacy

use of multiple medications

12

selective optimization with compensation

in context of normal aging and absence of pathology, old age brings losses of abilities and skills

13

what are three things successful aging holds according to SOC

1) selecting goals and goal priorities
2) optimizing resources that facilitate these goals
3) using alternative means to achieving one's goals despite limited capacities

14

socio-emotional selectivity theory

when we perceive time as unlimited our goals will be future-oriented and we will focus our energy on expanding our knowledge and horizons

15

strength and vulnerability integration theory

aging is associated with an increased ability to regulate emotions

16

are older women or men more likely to commit suicide

men - 5x more likely

17

are older or younger individuals more successful in committing suicide?

older adults

18

older clinically depressed individuals are more likely to report what

weight loss, other somatic symptoms

19

older clinically depressed individuals are less likely to report what

sadness, worthlessness, guilt

20

neurocognitive disorders

most common mental disorder in older adults in which sufferers lose their memory, judgement, reason, personal dignity and sense of self

21

five major diagnostic issues faced by physicians

1) time constraint
2) complexity of late-life depression
3) lack of specific diagnostic criteria for older adults
4) physical comorbidity masking depressive symptoms
5) lack of knowledge about available and effective treatment options for older adults

22

drug interaction

interactive effects of multiple medications

23

insomnia disorder

difficulty falling asleep, frequent awakenings, shortened sleep, and non-restorative sleep

24

restless legs syndrome

urge to move one's legs, unpleasant sensations, sensations worsen during periods of inactivity, movement relieving urge and unpleasantness, sensations worsen during night

25

sleep apnea

episodes of loss of breathing for up to 10 minutes

26

how many episodes of sleep apnea must occur in an hour for diagnosis

5 times

27

what does sleep apnea result in

hypoxemia and wakenings from sleep

28

late onset schizophrenia

first appears after age of 45, less likely to have disorganized speech, lack of logical thought, and flattened affect

29

more common in late onset schizophrenia

hallucinations and delusions will be more bizarre

30

delirium

acute onset of disturbances in attention, orientation memory, thinking, perception and behaviour

31

what can delirium result in if left untreated

rapid deterioration and premature death

32

risk factors of delirium - what causes it

metabolic, infectious, structural, drug overdose/withdrawal, acute strokes, exposure to toxic substances

33

causes of neurocognitive diseases

Alzheimer's disease, vascular disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, Lewy body disease etc.

34

pseudo-dementia

disorders that produce cognitive impairment that can be reversed

35

mild cognitive impairment

boundary zone between normal cognition functioning and dementia, deficits in one cognitive domain (usually memory)but are still able to function independently

36

MCI diagnostic criteria

1) memory complaints mentioned by family members or other people
2) objective evidence of impaired short-term memory
3) normal cognitive functioning
4) unimpaired social/occupational functioning
5) no major NCD

37

individuals with MCI are at high risk for what

NCD

38

Alzheimer's disease

most common cause of NCD, most common mental disorders among older adults

39

early stage of AD

exhibit memory difficulties, problems with concentration, unclear thinking, and mild difficulty finding words

40

middle stage of AD

existing symptoms become more severe and more may occur - short term memory problems worsen, language difficulties become more noticeable, difficult with purposeful motor movements

41

treatment for AD NCD

drugs that will reverse, stop, slow down process, psychotherapy

42

Vascular NCD

arteries that supply the brain are partly blocked - causing a stroke

43

brain lesion

area of damaged cortex due to vascular damage

44

gender differences in vascular NCD

higher in men than women - increases with age

45

treatment for vascular NCD

managing the risk factors of future cerebrovascular events - lifestyle changes and medication

46

NCD with lewy bodies

type of dementia characterized by Parkinsonism, visual hallucination, fluctuating alertness or cognition

47

Frontotemporal NCD

changes in personality or social conduct as well as deficits in higher-order cognitive abilities

48

as people get older they become more vulnerable in

physically, psychologically, independence

49

as people get older they become more resilient in

mental health problems, life satisfaction, emotional stability

50

successful aging

longevity is necessary but not sufficient

51

factors affecting successful aging

biological factors - biological reserve, cognitive reserve, mild stress
psychological factors - adaptability, positive attitudes, optimism, resilience, purpose in life
social factors - social interaction, social support

52

biological reserve

amount of damage to brain tissue that can be withstood while preserving functioning

53

cognitive reserve

brain's ability to adapt to damage

54

treatment in older adults for mood/anxiety disorders

psychotherapy and medication

55

presentation of delirium

hypoactive more than hyperactive

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delirium risk factors

male, 65+ years old, multiple medications, dementia, fracture, dehydration, drug use

57

etiology of AD

plaques/neurofibrillary tangles, atrophy of the cortex, APOE gene (especially in women)

58

etiology of frontotemporal NCD

damage to frontal and/or temporal lobes - often affects younger adults

59

treatment for frontotemporal NCD

no cure or medications to slow progression

60

lewy body NCD etiology

lewy bodies in the brain - interrupt the brain's messages

61

treatment for NCD etiology

medication to manage symptoms