Chapter 7 - Psychological Factors Affecting Medical Conditions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7 - Psychological Factors Affecting Medical Conditions Deck (91)
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1

dualistic

mind and body is viewed as separate entities, subject to different laws

2

what perspective emerged in the 1970s

realization that many, perhaps all, disease states are influenced directly/indirectly by social or psychological factors

3

behavioral medicine

refers to application of the methods of behaviour modification to the treatment or prevention of disease ex. psychological techniques to control pain in patients

4

health psychology

application of psychological methods and theories to understand the origins of disease, individual responses to disease, and the determination of good health

5

what is the key criterion to be diagnosed

must have medical condition that is adversely affected by psychological/behavioural factor

6

what is the exclusion criterion to be diagnosed

factors should not be better explained by another mental disorder

7

How do we rule in a psychological or behavioural factor?

1) evidence of identified factor influencing course of condition
2) factor interferes with the treatment of the medical condition
3) factor poses additional risk to the health of the individual
4) factor influences the pathophysiology of the disorder

8

mechanism

activity of a living system that mediates the influence of an antecedent factor on disease

9

what is illness defined by

defined by symptoms which are subjective reports of internal states

10

what is disease defined by

defined by signs which are objective indications of an underlying disease process, either directly by a person with appropriate training or indirectly through a specific test

11

lesion

when a sign involves disturbance in bodily tissue or normal functioning of a bodily system

12

why is the distinction between illness and disease important?

alerts us about the various mechanisms by which psychological factors may contribute to ill health

13

how can psychological factors influence ilness

affect our perception of, attention to, or tolerance of bodily signals

14

what can psychological influences on bodily tissues (via lesions) be?

can be the effects of behaviours (ex. smoking) or psychosocial variables (ex. emotions, interpretation of experience)

15

what three mechanisms are responsive to psychosocial factors?

endocrine system, autonomic nervous system and immune system

16

what are several endocrine organs known to be highly responsive to?

psychosocial variables - best known system is HPA axis (releases cortisol in response to a variety of psychosocial influences ex. stress)

17

endocrine system

organs that manufacture hormones and secrete them into the bloodstream

18

cortisol

highly active hormone - suppresses inflammation, mobilizes glucose from the liver, increases cardiovascular tone, produces immune system changes and inhibits other endocrine structures

19

are cortisol features used as a defense mechanism

yes

20

what are the short term responses in cortisol

promote immediate survival and inhibit unnecessary activity but they are maladaptive when prolonged/exaggerated

21

what is there evidence for regarding cortisol

suppress immune system function, enhance the development of atherosclerosis and contribute to neuronal damage in brain

22

does cortisol play a role in increasing the production of fat cells

yes

23

does cortisol contribute to neuronal damage in the brain that may be associated with dementia

yes

24

what are two parts of the ANS system

Sympathetic branch and parasympathetic system

25

sympathetic branch

produces changes that prepare the body for vigorous action; dangerous if prolonged

26

parasympathetic branch

returns the body to a more balanced state that is within the body's tolerance

27

why are effects of the ANS so fast?

because they don't reply on blood stream, instead rely on speed of nervous conduction

28

what part of a second endocrine subsystem is the sympathetic system part of

sympathetic-adrenal medullary (SAM) axis

29

what does the SAM axis do

1) Stimulates release of epinephrine and norepinephrine
2) Associated with "adrenalin rush", increased energy and body activation

30

immune system

comprises a network of cells and organs that defends the body against external, disease causing forces or internal pathogens (antigens)