Chapter 11 - Substance-Related Disorders Flashcards Preview

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1

substance use disorders

alcohol and drug addiction - recurrent use of one of specific substance that leads to consequences

2

10 different classes of substance use disorders

1) alcohol
2) caffeine
3) cannibis
4) hallucinogens
5) inhalants
6) opiods
7) sedatives
8) hypnotics and anxiolytics
9) stimulants
10) tobacco

3

4 general groupings of indicators

social impairment, impairment of control over use, risky use and pharmacological criteria

4

impairment of control

taking substance in greater amounts or for longer than intended, desire to cut down or quit, lots of time spent trying to obtain or recover from the substance, craving

5

social impairment

failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, home or school - continued despite clear negative consequences on relationships

6

risky use

use when it is physically dangerous, continued use despite having a problem that is made worse by the substance

7

pharmacological dependence

tolerance and withdrawal

8

tolerance

increased amounts of substance to achieve same effect

9

withdrawal

experience unpleasant and sometimes dangerous symptoms when substance is removed from body

10

which two methods of ingesting substance are the quickest to reach the brain

inhaling and injection (IV)

11

substance-induced disorders

associated with each of the 10 drug classes, including intoxication, withdrawal, and other substances

12

polysubstance abuse

simultaneous misuse or dependence upon two or more substances

13

low-risk drinking guidelines

indication of upper limits on drinking so that drinking is not likely to lead to physical impairment

14

ethyl alcohol

effective chemical compound in alcoholic beverages - reduces anxiety, produces euphoria, and creates a sense of well-being

15

Blood alcohol level

0.08% - usual

16

alcohol dehydrogenase

breaks down alcohol - women have less of this

17

what does alcohol do to your cycle of sleep

supresses REM phase of sleep, so first part of night is good then will rebound

18

Korsakoff's psychosis

chronic disease characterized by impaired memory and a loss of contact with reality

19

fetal alcohol syndrome

patter of facial dysmorphology, growth retardation and CNS dysfunction caused by mother's drinking habits

20

twins studies for alcohol

male monozygotic twins are more similar in their tendencies to develop problems with alcohol abuse and dependence

21

behavioral disinhibition

people with alcohol problems tend to have a relative inability to inhibit behavioural impulses

22

negative emotionality

tendency to experience psychological distress, anxiety, and depression

23

tension-reduction

hypothesis that drinking is reinforced by its ability to reduce tension, anxiety, anger, depression and other unpleasant emotions

24

alcohol expectancy theory

drinking behaviour is largely determined by the reinforcement that an individual expects to receive from it

25

behavioural tolerance

need for a greater amount for the same effect - greatest when conditioned environmental cues are present

26

acetaldehyde

breaks down alcohol - then it is further broken down by the enzyme aldehyde hydrogenase

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short-term consequences of alcohol

cognitive, driving, health

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long-term consequences of alcohol

related to genetic vulnerability, frequency/duration of alcohol use, severity of and frequency of binge drinking

29

Minnesota Model

popular treatment for people who show signs of withdrawal, treatment begins in a hospital or detoxification clinic under medical supervision - abstinence is the goal

30

Pharmacotherapy

assist in detoxification to reduce the pleasurable effects associated with drinking and to produce nausea when alcohol is consumed