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1

personality disorders

pattern of inner experience and behaviour that is not deemed appropriate considering individual's cultural expectations

2

key features of diagnosis

1. Pattern manifestation in 2+ areas (Cognition,emotion, interpersonal functioning or impulse control)

2. Rigid and consistent pattern across many contexts

3. Distress/ impairment

4. Stability and long duration of symptoms

5. Behaviour not caused by another mental illness

6. Behaviour not caused by substance abuse

3

cluster A

odd and eccentric disorders - paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal

4

cluster B

dramatic, emotional, or erratic disorder - antisocial, borderline, histrionic, narcissistic

5

cluster C

anxious and fearful disorders - avoidant, dependent, and obsessive-compulsive

6

onset of PD

adolescence or early adulthood

7

Areas of pattern manifestation

Cognition
Emotion
Interpersonal Functioning
Impulse control

8

How should Personality Disorders be assessed

Through structured interviews

9

Diagnostic issues in PDs

Low reliability (time and people)
Gender/ Cultural issues
Co-morbidity/overlap
Weak treatment efficacy
Poorly understood etiology

10

Etiology Theories

Psychodynamic
Attachment Theory
Cognitive Behavioural
Biological

11

Psychodynamic Theories

parent-child relationships leads to

inadequate sense of self

Issues relating to other people

12

Attachment Theories

Poor parent-child attachment > Poor adult attachment > Interpersonal relationship problems

13

Cognitive Behavioural Theories

Rigid, inflexible schemas
Invalidating environment
Modelling inappropriate behaviours

14

Biological Theories

Genetics
Brain Functioning
Emotion Regulation

15

How many Criterion must be met for a Paranoid PD diagnosis

4+ criteria

16

Paranoid Personality Disorder more common in which gender

males

17

Paranoid Personality Disorder

Pervasive distrust and suspicion of others

18

Schizoid Personality Disorder

Pervasive disinterest in social relationships and restricted affect

19

How many criterion must be met for a schizoid PD diagnosis

4+ criteria

20

Schizoid PD and social skills

They don't have social skills and are not interested in learning them

21

Schizotypal Personality Disorder

Pervasive pattern and social deficits, discomfort in interpersonal relationships, and perceptual distortion or eccentricities

22

Treatment of Schizotypal Disorder

Anti-Psychotics and Anti-Depressants

23

Schizotypal PD

Males

24

How to Cluster A PDs differ from schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is more severe
Schizotypal PD may be a mild form of schizophrenia

25

Can Cluster A PDs predict psychotic disorders

Cluster A PDs can be a precursor

26

When may Cluster A PDs appear

Childhood and Adolescents

27

Are Antisocial and Psychopathy the same disorder

No they are different

Not all people with antisocial are psychopaths

28

Which is more severe Antisocial PD or Psychopathy

Psychopathy is more severe

29

Is psychopathy a formal diagnosis

No, there is no formal diagnosis of psychopathy

30

Most psychopaths have Antisocial PD

true