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Flashcards in chapter 11 Deck (209):
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mouth

opening through which food passes into the body
breaks food into small particles by mastication

1

tongue

consists of skeletal muscle
provides movement for food mastication
directs food to pharynx for swallowing

2

palate

separates nasal cavity from oral cavity

3

soft palate

posterior portion, not supported by bone

4

hard palate

anterior portion, supported by bone

5

uvula

soft v-shaped structure that extends from soft palate, directs food to throat

6

pharynx, throat

performs swallowing action that passes food from the mouth to the esophagus

7

esophagus

10in tube that is passageway for food extending from pharynx to stomach
peristalsis begins here

8

stomach

j-shaped sac that mixes and stores food
secretes chems for digestion

9

cardia

area around the opening of the esophagus

10

fundus

uppermost domed portion of the stomach

11

body

central portion of the stomach

12

antrum

lower portion of the stomach

13

pylorus

portion of stomach that connects to small intestine

14

pyloric sphincter

ring of muscle that guards the opening between the stomach and duodenum

15

small intestine

20ft canal extending from pyloric sphincter
digestion completed
absorption, through villi

16

duodenum

first 10-12in of SI

17

jejunum

second portion of the small intestine, 8ft long

18

ileum

3rd portion of SI, 11ft long, connects with the large intestine

19

large intestine

canal, 5ft, extends from ileum to anus
absorption, elimination

20

cecum

blind u-shaped pouch that is the first portion of LI

21

colon

next portion of LI
divided in 4 parts: ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid

22

rectum

remaining portion of LI, 8-10in, sigmoid colon to anus

23

anus

sphincter muscle at end of digestive tract

24

salivary glands

produce saliva

25

liver

produces bile

26

bile ducts

passageways that carry bile
hepatic-from liver
cystic-from gallbladder
common-to duodenum

27

gallbladder

small, saclike structure that stores bile

28

pancreas

produces pancreatic juice
secretes insulin

29

peritoneum

serous saclike lining of the abdominal and pelvic cavities

30

appendix

small pouch, attached to cecum, no known function

31

abdomen

portion of body between thorax and pelvis

32

an/o

anus

33

antr/o

antrum

34

cec/o

cecum

35

col/o
colon/o

colon (usually LI)

36

duoden/o

duodenum

37

enter/o

intestine (usually SI)

38

esophag/o

esophagus

39

gastr/o

stomach

40

ile/o

ileum

41

jejun/o

jejunum

42

or/o
stomat/o

mouth

43

proct/o
rect/o

rectum

44

sigmoid/o

sigmoid colon

45

abdomin/o
celi/o
lapar/o

abdomen (cavity)

46

append/o
appendic/o

appendix

47

cheil/o

lip

48

cholangi/o

bile duct

49

chol/e

gall, bile

50

choledoch/o

common bile duct

51

diverticul/o

diverticulum, blind pouch, extending from a hollow organ

52

gingiv/o

gum

53

gloss/o
lingu/o

tongue

54

hepat/o

liver

55

herni/o

hernia, protrusion of an organ through a membrane of cavity wall

56

palat/o

palate

57

pancreat/o

pancreas

58

peritone/o

peritoneum

59

polyp/o

polyp
small growth

60

pylor/o

pylorus, pyloric sphincter

61

sial/o

saliva, salivary gland

62

steat/o

fat

63

uvul/o

uvula

64

hemi-

half

65

-pepsia

digestion

66

appendicitis

inflammation of the appendix

67

cholangioma

tumor of the bile duct

68

cholecystitis

inflammation of the gallbladder

69

choledocholithiasis

condition of stones in the common bile duct

70

cholelithasis

condition of gallstones

71

diverticulitis

inflammation of a diverticulum

72

diverticulosis

abnormal condition of having diverticula

73

esophagitis

inflammation of the esophagus

74

gastritis

inflammation of the stomach

75

gastroenteritis

inflammation of the stomach and intestines

76

gastroenterocolitis

inflammation of the stomach, intestines, colon

77

gingivitis

inflammation of the gums

78

hepatitis

inflammation of the liver

79

hepatoma

tumor of the liver

80

palatitis

inflammation of the palate

81

pancreatitis

inflammation of the pancreas

82

peritonitis

inflammation of the peritoneum

83

polyposis

abnormal condition of multiple polyps

84

proctoptosis

prolapse of the rectum

85

rectocele

protrusion of the rectum

86

sialolith

stone in salivary gland

87

steatohepatitis

inflammation of the liver associated with fat

88

uvulitis

inflammation of the uvula

89

adhesion

abnormal growing together of 2 surfaces that normally are separated

90

anorexia nervosa

eating disorder characterized by a prolonged refusal to eat, resulting in emaciation, amenorrhea in females, abnormal fear of becoming obese

91

bulimia nervosa

eating disorder involving gorging with food, followed by induced vomiting or laxative abuse (binging, purging)

92

celiac disease

malabsorption syndrome caused by an immune reaction to gluten, which may damage the lining of the SI that is responsible for absorption of food into the bloodstream

93

cirrhosis

chronic disease of the liver with gradual destruction of the cells and formation of scar tissue

94

crohn disease

chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract usually affecting the ileum and colon; formation of scar tissue that may lead to intestinal obstruction

95

gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

abnormal backward flow of gastrointestinal contents into the esophagus, causing heart burn and gradual breakdown of mucus barrier of esophagus

96

hemochromatosis

iron metabolism disorder that occurs when two much iron is absorbed from food, resulting in excessive deposits of iron in the tissue
can cause congestive heart failure, diabetes, cirrhosis

97

hemorrhoids

swollen or distended veins in the rectal area

98

ileus

obstruction of the intestine, often caused by failure of peristalsis

99

intussusception

telescoping of a segment of the intestine

100

irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)

periodic disturbances of bowel function

101

obesity

excess of body fat

102

peptic ulcer

eroded area of the mucous membrane of the stomach or duodenum associated with increased secretion of acid from stomach

103

polyp

tumorlike growth extending outward from a mucous membrane

104

ulcerative colitis

inflammation of the colon with the formation of ulcers

105

volvulus

twisting or kinking of the intestine causing obstruction

106

abdominocentesis

surgical procedure to remove fluid from the abdominal cavity

107

abdominoplasty

surgical repair of the abdomen

108

antrectomy

excision of the antrum

109

appendectomy

excision of the appendix

110

celiotomy

incision into the abdominal cavity

111

cheilorrhaphy

suture of the lip

112

cholecystectomy

excision of the gallbladder

113

choledocholithotomy

incision into a common bile duct to remove a stone

114

colectomy

excision of the colon

115

diverticulectomy

excision of a diverticulum

116

colostomy

creation of an artificial opening into the colon

117

enterorrhaphy

suture of the intestine

118

esophagogastroplasty

surgical repair of the esophagus and the stomach

119

gastrectomy

excision of the stomach

120

gastrojejunostomy

creation of an artificial opening between the stomach and jejunum

121

gastroplasty

surgical repair of the stomach

122

gastrostomy

creation of an artificial opening into the stomach

123

gingivectomy

surgical repair of gum(tissue)

124

glossorrhaphy

suture of the tongue

125

hemicolectomy

excision of half the colon

126

herniorrhaphy

suturing of a hernia

127

ileostomy

creation of an artificial opening into the ileum

128

laparotomy

incision into the abdominal cavity

129

palatoplasty

surgical repair of the palate

130

polypectomy

excision of a polyp

131

pyloromyotomy

incision into the pyloric muscle

132

pyloroplasty

surgical repair of the pyloris

133

uvulectomy

excision of the uvula

134

uvulopalatopharyngoplasty

surgical repair of the uvula, palate, pharynx

135

abdominoperineal resection (A&P resection)

removal of the distal colon and rectum through both abdominal and perineal approaches

136

anastomosis

an opening created by surgically joining two structures

137

bariatric surgery

surgical reduction of gastric capacity to treat morbid obesity causing serious illness

138

hemorrhoidectomy

excision of the hemorrhoids

139

vagotomy

cutting of certain branches of the vagus nerve

140

cholangiogram

radiographic image of bile ducts

141

cholangiography

radiographic imaging of the bile ducts

142

CT colonography

radiographic imaging of the colon

143

esophagogram

radiographic image of the esophagus

144

colonoscope

instrument used for visual examination of the colon

145

colonoscopy

visual examination of the colon

146

endoscope

instrument used for visual examination within a hollow organ

147

endoscopy

visual examination within a hollow organ

148

esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD)

visual examination of the esophagus, stomach, duodenum

149

esophagoscopy

visual examination of the esophagus

150

gastroscope

instrument used for visual examination of the stomach

151

gastroscopy

visual exmanination of the stomach

152

laparoscope

instrument used for visual examination of the abdominal cavity

153

laparoscopy

visual examination of the abdominal cavity

154

proctoscope

instrument used for the visual examination of the retum

155

proctoscopy

visual examination of the rectum

156

sigmoidoscopy

visual examination of the sigmoid colon

157

abdominal ultrasonography

process of recording images of internal organs using high frequency soundwaves produced by a transducer placed directly on the skin covering the abdominal cavity; observe size and structure of organs

158

barium enema (BE)

series of radiographic images taken of the LI after the contrast agent barium has been administered rectally

159

endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)

radiographic examination of the biliary ducts and pancreatic ducts with contrast media
used to evaluate obstructions, strictures, stone diseases

160

upper GI series

series of radiographic images taken of the stomach and duodenum after contrast agent barium has been swallowed

161

endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)

procedure using an endoscope fitted with an ultrasound probe that provides images of layers of the intestinal wall
used to detect tumors and cystic growth

162

fecal occult blood test (FOBT)

test to detect occult blood in feces
used to screen for colon cancer or polyps

163

helicobacter pylori antibodies test

blood test to determine the presence of h pylori bacteria; can be present in lining of stomach, can cause peptic ulcers

164

abdominal

pertaining to the abdomen

165

anal

pertaining to the anus

166

aphagia

without swallowing (inability to)

167

celiac

pertaining to the abdomen

168

colorectal

pertaining to the colon, rectum

169

duodenal

pertaining to the duodenum

170

dyspepsia

difficult digestion

171

dysphagia

difficult swallowing

172

enteropathy

disease of the intestine

173

esophageal

pertaining to the esophagus

174

gastric

pertaining to the stomach

175

gastroenterologist

a physician who studies and treats diseases of the stomach and intestines

176

gatroenterology

study of the stomach and intestines

177

gastromalacia

softening of the stomach

178

glossopathy

disease of the tongue

179

ileocecal

pertaining to the ileum and cecum

180

nasogastric

pertaining to the nose and stomach

181

oral

pertaining to the mouth

182

pancreatic

pertaining to the pancreas

183

peritoneal

pertaining to the peritoneum

184

proctologist

physician who studies and treats diseases of the rectum

185

proctology

study of the rectum

186

rectal

pertaining to the rectum

187

steatorrhea

discharge of fat

188

steatosis

abnormal condition of fat

189

stomatitis

inflammation of the mouth

190

stomatogastric

pertaining to the mouth and stomach

191

sublingual

pertaining to under the tongue

192

ascites

abnormal collection of fluid in the peritoneal cavity

193

diarrhea

frequent discharge of liquid stool

194

dysentery

disorder that involves inflammation of the intestine associated with diarrhea and abdominal pain

195

emesis

expelling matter from the stomach through the mouth

196

feces

waste from the digestive tract expelled through the rectum

197

flatus

gas in the digestive tract or expelled through the anus

198

gastric lavage

washing out the stomach

199

gavage

process of feeding a person through a nasogastric tube

200

hematemesis

vomiting of blood

201

hematochezia

passage of bloody feces

202

malabsorption

impaired digestion or intestinal absorption of nutrients

203

melena

black, tarry stool that contains digested blood

204

nausea

urge to vomit

205

peristalsis

involuntary wavelike contractions that propel food along the digestive tract

206

reflux

abnormal backward flow

207

stoma

surgical opening between an organ and the surface of the body or between body structures or between portions of the intestine

208

vomiting

expelling matter from the stomach through the mouth